Historic Pelham

Presenting the rich history of Pelham, NY in Westchester County: current historical research, descriptions of how to research Pelham history online and genealogy discussions of Pelham families.

Thursday, August 30, 2018

How Extensive Did Thomas Pell Believe His Land Acquisition from Local Wiechquaeskecks To Be?


For nearly 150 years, Pelham lore held that Thomas Pell's land purchase from local Natives on June 27, 1654 (old style Julian Calendar) involved 9,166 acres.  During the late 1980s, Pelham Town Historian Susan Swanson reviewed primary sources and demonstrated that Pelham lore was flatly wrong.  Pell's purchase involved up to roughly 50,000 acres of land in today's Bronx and lower Westchester County.  What lands, however, did Pell believe he acquired from local Wiechquaeskecks?

The agreement Pell signed with local Natives that day provides some evidence of the lands Pell believed he bought in 1654.  It describes the lands as follows:

"a piece of land Bounded by ye Sea to ye South wth yt Tract off land Called by ye English Longe Island; to ye west & west & by South wth ye bay & River & River Diawockinge Acqueonunge (Chemaqūanaock to ye East) wth all ye Islands yt are in ye salt water to ye South South East & South West Against yt Tract off Land wch is Beffore expresd."

In his history of the Town of Pelham published in 1946, Lockwood Barr described the bounds of the purchase in modern terms, stating:

"This treaty [sic] conveyed to Thomas Pell the lands east of Hutchinson River to Mamaroneck, including City Island, Hunter's Island, Travers Island and all the others, large and small, bordering the Shore. On the mainland, the tract included Pells Point, all the Pelhams, and New Rochelle. West of the River it included the Town of East Chester, part of Mt. Vernon, and a portion of the Bronx."

Source:  Barr, Lockwood Anderson, A Brief, But Most Complete & True Account of the Settlement of the Ancient Town of Pelham Westchester County, State of New York Known One Time Well & Favourably as the Lordshipp & Manour of Pelham Also The Story of the Three Modern Villages Called The Pelhams, pp. 12-13 (The Dietz Press, Inc. 1946).

A variety of conveyances of portions of the property by Thomas Pell (and by his legatee nephew and nephew's wife, John and Rachel Pell) as well as lawsuits over disputed boundaries of the land Pell purchased shed fascinating light on the extent of the lands that Pell believed he purchased from the Natives and demonstrates that Pell understood his purchase to encompass lands explicitly claimed by the Dutch on which the Dutch previously had planted settlers in 1643 and, perhaps, earlier.  

Pell clearly believed his purchase to extend from Long Island Sound (while including numerous islands off the shores of the mainland) westward to the Bronx River.  Clearly he also understood it to extend southwest of Eastchester Bay to encompass not only today's Throgg's Neck but also the entire mainland from Throgg's Neck to the Bronx River and extending all the way to the mouth of the Bronx River where it enters Long Island Sound (including Cornell's Neck, an area now known as Clason Point in the Bronx).  To the north, Pell clearly believed his land holdings extended into portions of today's Mamaroneck on the coast and even as far as an area slightly beyond the northwestern tip of today's City of New Rochelle.

This, indeed, was a vast swath of land nearly six times the size of the 9,166 acres of land that most historians claim Pell purchased.  See, e.g., Bolton, Jr., Robert, A History of the County of Westchester from its First Settlement to the Present Time, Vol. I, p. 513 (NY, NY: Alexander S. Gould, 1848) (noting that Pell's purchase "originally embraced nine thousand one hundred and sixty-six acres"). 

What evidence do have that Pell understood his purchase to be that large?  First, by November 14, 1654, only months after his purchase, Pell planted a group of English settlers in a settlement that became known as "West Chester" by the English and "Oostdorp" by the Dutch.  Indeed, it appears that on November 14, 1654 (old style; Julian calendar), Thomas Pell entered into some form of agreement selling the portion of his lands that became the little settlement of West Chester to the English settlers.  Before the settlers paid (or completed payment) for the lands, there arose "some troubles which hindered the underwriters possession". That trouble, of course, was the intervention of Dutch authorities who arrested and imprisoned many of the settlers claiming that they had settled on land owned by the Dutch. Ten years later, Pell seems to have "settled" this longstanding matter by obtaining written confirmation from the inhabitants of the Town of West Chester that he remained the owner of the land because they (or their predecessors) had not paid Pell for the land. At the same time, Pell affirmed in writing that the inhabitants could continue to "enjoy the present improvements of Their labors, Their home Lotts, and planting grounds with what meadowes were in times past laid out to each man's particular". In short, he affirmed that he would not evict them from the land.  For more, see Mon., Nov. 06, 2006:  The Source of Confusion Over the Date Thomas Pell Acquired the Lands That Became the Manor of Pelham

Next, on June 24, 1664, Thomas Pell sold lands between the Hutchinson River and the Bronx River to Phillip Pinckney and James Eustis from Fairfield, Connecticut who, in turn, arranged for ten Puritan families to come by boat in August of that year to settle on a portion of the land previously occupied by Anne Hutchinson before her murder by local Natives in 1643.  Those lands included today's Town of Eastchester, City of Mount Vernon, and portions of the Bronx.

Two years later, in 1666, Pell became embroiled in a significant lawsuit with Charles Bridges and Sarah Cornell Bridges disputing ownership of Cornell's Neck.  The map immediately below illustrates the location of Cornell's and its relationship to Pelham Neck, the settlement of Westchester, and Throgg's Neck. 


Map Showing Location of Cornell's Neck and its Relation to the
Settlement of Westchester, Throggs Neck, and Pelham Neck.
Source:  Cornell, John, Genealogy of the Cornell Family Being
R. I., Opposite p. 21 (NY, NY:  Press of T. A. Wright, 1902).
NOTE: Click on Image to Enlarge.

Pell claimed ownership of the region including Cornell's Neck and argued, essentially, that the claims of Charles Bridges and Sarah Cornell Bridges to the land derived from a chain of title that began with an award of the land by Dutch Colonial authorities which, according to Pell, had no ownership of, or right and title to, the land.  Eventually the court rejected the positions taken by Pell.

Next, only two weeks before Thomas Pell died in late September, 1669, John Richbell of Mamaroneck started a lawsuit against him claiming that he "Doe unjustly detaine & keep from him a certain parcell of meadowe Ground lyeing & being neare unto or upon one of ye three necks of Land at Momoronock."  Pell claimed these lands as part of his original purchase.  Richbell also claimed the lands.

The death of Thomas Pell two weeks after John Richbell first demanded a hearing on the matter before the Court of Assizes seems to have brought the matter to a halt for quite some time.  In the interim, Thomas Pell's nephew, John Pell, became the principal legatee under Thomas Pell's will and succeeded to his estate including his large land interests.

Eventually, Francis Lovelace, Governor of the Province of New York, stepped into the matter and appointed a group of Commissioners to make recommendations regarding resolution of the dispute.  The Commissioners could not agree on a resolution. Interestingly, however, they reported to Governor that they had discovered a tree in the disputed meadow "markt on ye East side with J. R. [John Richbell] & on the West with T. P. [Thomas Pell]" from which, if a line were drawn from the tree directly toward Long Island Sound, would divide the meadow exactly in half.  Though the Commissioners did not resolve the dispute, Governor Lovelace ordered Pell and Richbell to consider the report and attempt to resolve the matter before a trial would be conducted.  On January 25, 1671/72, the men reportedly settled the matter and "agreed upon [the land] to bee divided equally between them, both Meadow & Vpland, quanity & quality alike."  Consequently, a portion of the lands originally claimed by Thomas Pell were confirmed as the property of John Richbell due to his purchase from "Cakoe," a local Native who sold the land to Richbell and likely was the "Cockho" who was among the local Natives who signed the Pell Deed in 1654.  See Tue., Oct. 24, 2006:  Thomas Pell's and John Pell's Land Dispute with John Richbell in the Late 1660s and Early 1670s.

Two decades after Thomas Pell's death, on September 20, 1689, Pell's principal legatee and nephew, John Pell, and John Pell's wife (Rachel) conveyed to Jacob Leisler of New York City 6,100 acres of land that had formed portions of the northeastern part of Thomas Pell's original land acquisition in 1654.  See Fri., Apr. 06, 2007:  The Deed Reflecting John Pell's Sale of the Lands that Became New Rochelle.  

Finally, of course, in 1895, New York City annexed a large part of the Town of Pelham including Pelham Bay Park, City Island, and other islands nearby.  All of these lands likewise were part of Pell's original purchase.  Out of roughly 50,000 acres that Pell believed comprised his original purchase from local Natives, only slightly less than 1,570 acres of remain within the boundaries of today's Town of Pelham.

During the 1980s, then Town Historian Sue Swanson reviewed material and crafted a map that serves as a powerful visual aid to understand the magnitude of the lands that Thomas Pell believed he bought from local Wichquaeskecks in 1654.  An image of the map appears immediately below.



Map of Pell's Purchase from the Indians and Pelham Today
by Susan Swanson, Former Town Historian of the Town of
Pelham.  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

Another such map sheds similar light on the monumental scope of Pell's original purchase.  Although the map does not purport to depict the entire area acquired by Pell, it is an early map that helps understand the size of the purchase.  It is a map prepared in 1708 in connection with efforts begun in 1704 to have John Drake, Henry Fowler, Joseph Drake, Edmund Ward and Jeremiah Fowler act on behalf of the freeholders of the town of Eastchester in connection with procuring a patent for local lands as they sought to clarify a land dispute with the settlement of Westchester.  The map was entitled "A Draft of the Lands in Controversy Between the Inhabitants of East Chester Joynd with William Pear Tree & Surveyed & Laid Down 1st August - Graham Lell."  An image of a later copy of the map appears immediately below.


"A Draft of the Lands In Controversy Between the Inhabitants of
Westchester & the Inhabitants of East Chester Joynd with William
Pear Tree & Surveyed & Laid Down 1st August - Graham Lell" prepared
by Colonel William Peartree in 1708. NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.


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Wednesday, August 29, 2018

The Entire Northeast, Including the Pelham Region, Was Shaken by a Large Earthquake in 1638



"It came with a report like continued thunder, or the
rattling of numerous coaches upon a paved street.
The shock was so great that, in many places, the tops
of the chimneys were thrown down, and the pewter
fell from the shelves.  It shook the waters and ships in
the harbours, and all the adjacent islands."

-- Benjamin Trumbull's History of Connecticut, Vol. I, p. 72.  

Some said the duration of the massive earthquake, one of the largest to strike the northeast coast of America in historic times, was about four minutes.  It began between 3 and 4 p.m. on June 1, 1638 (old style Julian Calendar).  In more recent times seismologists using descriptions of the event and its aftermath have estimated that the magnitude of the quake was up to 7.0 and that its epicenter was within today's New Hampshire.  The massive quake shook the entire northeast all the way to southwest Connecticut and today's Pelham region.  There was a monumental aftershock barely thirty minutes after the initial seismic event, followed by several weeks of smaller aftershocks.  This was the first major earthquake to shake Pelham that was recorded in historic times.

The Pelham region, of course, was sparsely populated at the time.  By 1638, smallpox and other European-borne diseases already had decimated Wiechquaeskeck Natives in the region.  There were few Dutch outposts on the mainland north of Manhattan.  That year Willem Kieft was named Director by the Dutch West India Company to oversee New Netherland.  The two-year war between English settlers and Pequot Natives was coming to a bloody and brutal end.  English Puritans planted a new colony at New Haven that year, the same year Harvard College was founded.  

Connecticut historian Benjamin Trumbull described the massive earthquake that hammered the northeast that day as follows:

"On the 1st of June, between the hours of three and four in the afternoon, there was a great and memorable earthquake throughout New-England.  It came with a report like continued thunder, or the rattling of numerous coaches upon a paved street.  The shock was so great that, in many places, the tops of the chimneys were thrown down, and the pewter fell from the shelves.  It shook the waters and ships in the harbours, and all the adjacent islands.  The duration of the sound and tremor was about four minutes.  The earth, at turns, was unquiet for nearly twenty days.  The weather was clear, the wind westerly, and the course of the earthquake from west to east."

Source:  Trumbull, Benjamin, A Complete History of Connecticut Civil and Ecclesiastical From the Emigration of the First Planters, from England, in the Year 1630, to the Year 1764; and to the Close of the Indian Wars In Two Volumes, Vol. I, pp. 72-73 (New London, CT:  H. D. Utley, 1898).   

Though Pelhamites rarely consider the risk of earthquakes, there have been quite a few that have shaken the region in historic times.  Moreover, our region constantly shudders with small earthquakes.  According to the United States Geological Survey, our region has experienced nineteen small earthquakes of magnitude 1.5 or smaller in the last three years (since August 27, 2015).  See United States Geological Survey, Earthquakes: Earthquakes Hazards Program (visited Aug. 27, 2018).  There have been several articles on the topic published in the Historic Pelham Blog.  See., e.g.:

Thu., May 17, 2018:  Did the Westchester County Region Experience Yet More Earthquakes in Early 1885 or Not?

Tue., Sep. 19, 2017:  Another Account of the Earthquake that Shook Pelham in 1872

Mon., Feb. 20, 2017:  Brief Account of Damage in Pelham During the Earthquake of August 10, 1884

Mon., Aug. 25, 2014:  Earthquake! Is Pelham on Shaky Ground? 

Tue., Sep. 15, 2009:  An Earthquake in Pelham and Surrounding Areas on Sunday, August 10, 1884

Mon., Aug. 08, 2005:  The Day the Earth Shook in Pelham: July 11, 1872.

Of course, the earthquake that struck the northeast in 1638 was among the largest in recorded historic times.  The following is another fascinating account of the 1638 earthquake that gives a rather unsettling account of its power closer to the epicenter.  It was written by William Bradford who served as second governor of Plymouth Colony beginning in 1621 and remained in that role, off and on, for the remainder of his life until his death in 1657.  He wrote:

"This year [1638], aboute ye 1. or 2. of June, was a great & fearfull earthquake; it was in this place heard before it was felte.  It came with a rumbling noyse, or low murure, like unto remoate thunder; it came from ye norward, & pased southward.  As ye noyse aproched nerer, they earth begane to shake, and came at length with that violence as caused platters, dishes, & such things as stoode upon shelves, to clatter & fall downe; year, persons were afraid of ye houses them selves.  It so fell oute yt at ye same time diverse of ye cheefe of this towne were mett together at one house, conferring with some of their freinds that were upon their removall from ye place, (as if ye Lord would herby shew ye signes of his displeasure, in their shaking a peeces & removalls one from an other.)  How ever it was very terrible for ye time, and as ye men were set talking in ye house, some women & others were without ye dores, and ye earth shooke with yt violence as they could not stand without catching hould of ye posts & pails yt stood next them; but ye violence lasted not long.  And about halfe an hower, or less, came an other noyse & shaking, but nether so loud nor strong as ye former, but quickly passed over; and so it ceased.  It was not only on ye sea coast, but ye Indeans felt it within land; and some ships that were upon ye coast were shaken by it.  So powerfull is ye mighty hand of ye Lord, as to make both the earth & sea to shake, and the mountaines to tremble before him, when he pleases; and who can stay his hand?  It was observed that ye somers, for divers years togeather after this earthquake, were not so hotte & seasonable for ye ripning of corne & other fruits as formerly; but more could & moyst, & subjecte to erly & untimly frosts, by which, many times, much Indean corne came not to maturitie; but whether this was any cause, I leave it to naturallists to judge."

Source:  Deane, Charles, ed., History of Plymouth Plantation by William Bradford, The Second Governor of the Colony, Now First Printed From the Original Manuscript, for The Massachusetts Historical Society, pp. 366-67 (Boston, MA:  Little, Brown, and Co., 1856) (footnote omitted).  

As Bradford's account of the earthquake indicates, settlers (and likely local Natives), took the quake as a sign from God.  Indeed, there are records that Anne Hutchinson, who moved to the Pelham region a few years after the earthquake, was in a prayer meeting with her followers in Rhode Island at the time of the earthquake and took the event as a meaningful sign from God.  Indeed, Christy K. Robinson has written:

"The Hutchinsonians (followers of Anne Hutchinson's religious faction) had been in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, for about a month after having been exiled from Massachusetts Bay Colony.  On Tuesday, June 1, 1638. . . an earthquake struck New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. . . .There was a large aftershock about 30 minutes after the main shock, and many more tremors before the earth stilled about three weeks later -- just in time for a full eclipse of the moon, which showed itself a dried-blood color on June 25, 1638 [old style Julian Calendar].  The moon turning to blood is an apocalyptic sign.  Revelation 6:12 describes the end-times that the Puritans believed were upon them, 'and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood.'  Another prophecy of the end was in Acts of the Apostles 2:20-21:  'And I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke:  The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and notable day of the Lord come: And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.' . . . We have a very good idea of what Anne Hutchinson and Mary Dyer were doing at the time of the earthquake, thanks to Gov. John Winthrop who tells us that they were having a prayer meeting, as they'd done for several years in Boston.  When the quake struck . . . the Hutchinsonians were convinced that just as on the Day of Pentecost, 50 days after after Christ's resurrection, they were being blessed and honored by the descent of the Holy Spirit, giving them spiritual gifts in confirmation that they were firmly set in God's will."

Source:  Robinson, Christy K., The Great New England Quake of 1638, William and Mary Dyer Blog (Sep. 7, 2011) (visited Aug. 18, 2018).



Anne Marbury Hutchinson as Depicted in "Little Journeys to the Homes
of Great Reformers, Memorial Edition, by Elbert Hubbard, Published in
1916.  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

For almost four hundred years during its recorded history, the Pelham region, it seems, repeatedly has suffered earthquakes.  Puritans, Hutchinsonians, and early settlers deemed such events signs from God.  If so, God has wrought such havoc many times since in Pelham and likely will continue in the future. . . . . 


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Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Seventeenth Century Maps that Depict the Pelham Region


Maps, of course, provide an interesting glimpse of changes within our region since the earliest European explorers began traversing the area and attempting to chart and map it for others to follow.  Dutch and English cartographers began crafting such depictions that included the region around today's Pelham as early as 1614.  

The accuracy and reliability of such maps must be considered with extreme care, however.  Most were drawn and engraved in Holland or England and were crafted by reliance on earlier maps supplemented with interpretations of carefully recorded information from the logs of ships that since had visited the same region.  Indeed, many maps of the New York region included images of Natives, Native canoes and dugouts, Native palisades, and other such cultural resources but placed the locations erroneously.  As one example, some showed birch bark canoes off the shores of Manhattan, an unlikely scenario since the Natives of the region crafted dugout canoes, not birch bark canoes which were far more prevalent near Massachusetts.  

Many, many maps were crafted simply by beginning with a copy of an earlier map.  Thus, errors were repeated over and over in many instances for decades.  Still, much can be learned from reasoned consideration of such maps and the ways they depict particular areas.

Today's Historic Pelham Blog article presents details from a handful of important 17th century maps that included depictions of the region that later became Pelham.  In each instance, the detail is followed by a brief commentary that summarizes a little about the historical significance of the map viz-a-viz the Pelham region.  

There are far too many such 17th century maps to discuss in a single article.  Indeed, some already have been discussed in other Historic Pelham Blog articles.  See, e.g., Mon., Aug. 13, 2018:  There Seems To Be Another Early 17th Century Map that References Siwanoys.  Today's article, however, will begin what is planned as a series of intermittent discussions of such maps in an effort to document such material as it relates to the history of the little Town of Pelham, New York.  Each detail, on which visitors can click to see a higher resolution of the image, is followed by a citation to its source and a link to an image of the full map which, typically, can be magnified to very large size for study.


Detail from "Nova Anglia, Novum Belgium et Virginia + Bermuda majori mole
expressa" (New England, New Netherland, and Virginia, and Bermuda Drawn
on a Larger Scale).  1630.  By Mapmakers Hessel Gerritsz and Ioannes de Laet.
(visited Aug. 18, 2018).  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

This map is considered a landmark work.  It was prepared in 1630, barely five years after the founding of New Amsterdam and the construction of Fort Amsterdam. The detail above shows the region that became Pelham just left of center.  There are three significant references important to the history of the region.  There is a reference to "Helle gat" (today's Hell Gate where the so-called East River enters Long Island Sound, once a treacherous, boulder infested area where many vessels foundered).  There also is a reference to "Wecké" in the region which clearly is an early reference to Wiechquaeskeck.  The reference may have been a reference to the geographical feature referenced so often as "Wickers Creek" (and by many spelling variants).  However, because other nearby references on the map clearly indicate local Native peoples, this most likely is a reference to the Wiechquaeskeck Natives in the region.  If so, it is significant to note that it is the only such Native reference on the map in the Pelham region -- there is no reference to Siwanoys.  

A third significant aspect of the detail is the reference in the Long Island Sound waters off the shores of the Pelham region to "Aechipelago" (i.e., Archipelago) and the depiction of a host of islands off the shores.  This group of islands clearly would include the myriad such islands, islets, and rocky outcroppings off the shores of Pelham including City Island, Hart Island, Hunter's Island, Travers Island, Davids Island, the Blauzes, the Chimney Sweeps, and dozens of other such islets.


Detail from "Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova." (New Netherland and New
England.) 1635.  By Mapmaker Willem Blaeu.  Source:  "Nova Belgica
et Anglia Nova," New York Public Library Lionel Pincus and Prrincess
Firyal Map Division, Digital Image No. 434101 (visited Aug. 18,
2018).  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

Though published in 1635, this is an enhanced, engraved, and published version of Adriaen Block's early 1614 manuscript map of New Netherland and New England.  Unlike most of the other maps, this one is oriented with north depicted to the right on the map as seen by the viewer.  

This early map references "Wecke" (i.e., Wiechquaeskecks) roughly in the region of today's Pelham (with no reference in that region to Siwanoys).  The map also shows "Hellegat" and three references in the area to "Archipelagus" (or other spelling variants). 


Detail from "Nova Anglia, Novum Belgium, et Virginia" (New England,
New Netherland, and Virginia).  1636.  By Mapmakers Janssonius
Jansz and Johannes Jan.  Source:  Nova Anglia, Novum Belgium, et
Virginia, New York Public Library, Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal
Map Division, Image ID 484206 (visited Aug. 18, 2018).  NOTE:
Click on Image to Enlarge.


Map collectors refer to this map as the "first state" of Janssoniu (or Jansson) Jansz's printed map plate that clearly was based on the above-referenced 1630 copper plate prepared by cartographer Hessel Gerritsz.  Because the map is based on the earlier 1630 Gerritsz map, the region of today's Pelham references the same three features important to Pelham history:  (1) Wecke; (2) Helle gaet; and (3) Aechipelago.


Detail from "Nova Belgica sive Nieuw Nederlandt." 1656.  Prepared by
Adriaen van der Donck and Included in van der Donck's "Beschryvinge
van Nieuw-Nederlant" Published in 1656.  Source:  "Nova Belgica sive
Nieuw Nederlandt," 1656, John Carter Brown Library Map Collection,
Brown University, Accession No. 02929, File Name 02929-1, Call No.
F656 D678b (visited Aug. 18, 2018).  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

This map is fascinating because it was created from a map drawn by Adriaen van der Donck, after whom today's Yonkers is named.  During portions of the 1640s van der Donck owned and developed a vast acreage awarded him by the Director-General and Council at Fort Amsterdam that encompassed a large swath of the southwestern portion of today's lower Westchester County.  Van der Donck actually resided in the region and served as, among other things, a guide and interpreter for the Dutch colonial authorities given his experience with local Natives.

That makes the map detail depicted above quite interesting given that it contains a reference to "Siwanoys" suggesting that a band of local Natives in the region was known as "Siwanoys."  Interestlingly, the map places such "Siwanoys" north and northwest of Stamford rather than in the Pelham region.  

The Pelham region, which is labeled "Freedlant," is shown as populated by the Natives known as "Manhattans" (who also are shown as located on today's Manhattan).  It is known that the Manhattans of the Island of Manhattan and the Wiechquaeskecks of the Bronx and lower Westchester County, both Lenape groups that spoke the Munsee dialect, were close and communicated and traded with one another via a significant trail that became Broadway and Old Boston Post Road.  However, most modern scholars agree that the Manhattans populated the Island of Manhattan while the Wiechquaeskecks populated much of the Bronx, Westchester County, and even southwestern Connecticut.

The map seems to copy other earlier maps in its placement of a reference to "Siwanoys" north of Stamford.  It also includes a reference to "Hellegat."  Though it references "Archipelago" in Long Island Sound well east of Stamford, it shows the Sound as the "Oost Rever" (East River) and depicts many small islands in waters off the shores of Freedlant.  


Detail from "Pas caerte van Nieu Nederlandt en de Engelsche Virginies
van Cabo Cod tot Cabo Canrick"  1666.  By Mapmaker Pieter Groos.
Source:  Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Inc., "Pas caerte
Cabo Canrick" (visited Aug. 18, 2018).  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

This detail immediately above is from a significant 17th century Dutch map that illustrates the Atlantic coast of America from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras with, of course, an emphasis on the Dutch Colony of New Netherland.  Cartographer Pieter Goos published the map in De Zee Atlas ofter Water-Weereld, first published by Goos in 1666.  

There are a number of notable features in the region that became today's Pelham depicted on this map.  First, it once again includes a reference to "Hellegat" (similar to the earlier-referenced 'Helle gaet" references described above.  It also references the Pelham region as "Freedlant," a Dutch term that translates very roughly as "Freedom Land."  Not only did the Dutch know today's Pelham region as Freedlandt (with many variant spellings reflected in 17th century records) but also in the 1960s a massive amusement park operated in the same area (including the area where today's Co-op City stands) that was named "Freedom Land."  Additionally, it shows the Long Island Sound off of Pelham shores as "Oost Rivier" (i.e., "East River").  Finally, this map shows the "Archipelago" as an area of islands off Connecticut shores, although it continues to show many small, untitled islands and islets off the shore of "Freedlant."


 Detail from "Pas caerte van Nieu Nederlandt en de Engelsche Virginies : van
Cabo Cod tot Cabo Canrick" (Later Edition, 1676, of Map by Pieter Goos first Published
van Cabo Cod tot Cabo Canrick, New York Public Library Lionel Pincus and 
Princess Firyall Map Division, Digital Image No.  433976 (visited Aug. 18, 2018).
NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

This detail from a 1676 edition of a map first published by cartographer Pieter Groos in 1666 (see above) includes two interesting elements depicted in the region that became today's Pelham.  First, it once again includes a reference to "Hellegat" (similar to the earlier-referenced 'Helle gaet" references described above.  It also references the Pelham region, once again, as "Freedlant."

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Friday, August 24, 2018

The Nation -- and World -- Were Amazed by the Quality of Women's Cricket Played in Pelham Manor in 1896


It was the epitome of a purported "He Man's Sport" that, in those days, was supposed to be played by real men.  When women attempted to play the sport, according to the then-current common belief, they were more worried about "bruised fingers" than winning an athletic contest.  Thus, when two teams of eleven women squared off for their big battle on November 14, 1896, on Prospect Hill in Pelham Manor, a tremendous crowd was on hand to enjoy the "spectacle."  To the shock and delight of the crowd, however, the women played brilliantly in a hard-fought match that wore down both teams with the Pelham team emerging the victor.  Real women, it seemed, could play cricket as well as men!

For the next several weeks newspapers throughout the United States and Canada marveled at the fact that these two teams of eleven women had played cricket "JUST LIKE REAL MEN" as The World of New York City reported. Indeed, the Pelham Hall team representing Mrs. Hazen's School for Girls in the Village of Pelham Manor, playing in their "short white skirts" and "light blue sweaters" with "P. H." embroidered on front, soundly whipped the young women of Rosemary Hall, a similar young women's boarding academy from Wallingford, Connecticut.

The women's cricket match was not a first for Pelham Manor, nor for the young women from Pelham Hall and Rosemary Hall.  Indeed, the year before Pelham Hall had lost to Rosemary Hall in what became an annual battle fought over a blue championship banner that passed back and forth between the two schools based on the results of the annual cricket match.  

The match in 1896 was different, however.  Pelham Hall had a reputation to defend.  The school was known for its exceptional women's athletics programs.  Thus, the women of the "Pelham Hall Cricket Club" could not let the loss in 1895 stand.  They worked hard in 1896 to prepare for the big re-match against Rosemary Hall.  The work paid off (and showed) during the big match on November 14, 1896.  

The young women of Mrs. Hazen's School for Girls began preparing for the big 1896 re-match at least as early as May of that year -- nearly six months in advance of the battle.  That May the young women of the school split into two cricket teams and played a scrimmage on Prospect Hill.  That match lasted four hours.  Afterward, Mrs. John Cunningham Hazen and her daughter, Edith C. Hazen, gathered with the two teams beneath the branches of the "Pell Treaty Oak" that once stood on the grounds of today's Bartow-Pell Mansion Museum.  There the Hazens awarded cuff links and studs of silver and blue enamel to the victors (and cuff buttons and studs of gold set with carbuncles to their captain, Annie King).  The losing squad "received two great bunches of American Beauty Roses."
By November 14, the varsity team of Pelham Hall was ready.  The day, however, was bitterly cold and windy.  The Pelham Hall team was ferried to the playing field on Prospect Hill in coaches festooned with banners of blue and white, the school colors.  There they met the women of Rosemary Hall and began a match in front of a very large crowd of Pelham spectators (mostly women).

The match ended at the close of two innings after five hours.  The captain of the Pelham Hall team, Annie King, clearly was the star of the match.  Indeed, at the close of the match she was carried off the field on the shoulders of her teammates who hugged and kissed each other following the victory.  At the time, Annie King and her sister, Elva, both attended Pelham Hall.  They were daughters of John King, then the Vice-President of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.

Pelham Hall won by 69 runs, by a score of 132 to 63.  A number of articles published in newspapers around the country included complete box scores for the game, detailing batted and caught outs, runs scored, and "wides."  The box score appears within a number of the articles transcribed below. 

Following that match, media outlets throughout the United States and Canada reported breathlessly about how the women of both teams had delivered, batted, bowled, and caught the entire cricket match "like men;" how their athleticism was reminiscent of that of men; and how they were fearless in their play.  For example, a newspaper in Buffalo reported the next day:

"As soon as the two teams took the field it was seen that their exhibition would not be the usual kind given by women cricketers.  The girls threw the ball like men; made good stops and catches; had no fear, and were altogether oblivious to hard knocks and bruised fingers.  Their hands were soon blue from the cold, but they cared not for that, and before the final decision of the game was reached two full innings had been played."


Members of the Pelham Hall Cricket Club, Mrs. Hazen's School for
Girls, Pelham Manor, N.Y., in 1895. The Photograph Likely Shows
Many of the Women Who Played in the Match Held the Following
Year on November 14, 1896.  Source: Courtesy of The Office of The
Historian of The Town of Pelham. NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

I have written before of the adventures of the Pelham Hall Cricket Club of Mrs. Hazen's School for Girls in Pelham Manor, New York.  See Wed., Mar. 18, 2015:  Account of Women's Cricket Match Played by Pelham Manor Women in 1898.  That article detailed yet another of the annual matches between Pelham Hall and Rosemary Hall held in 1898.

*          *          *          *          * 

Transcribed below is the text of a number of articles published throughout the nation and Canada about the Pelham Hall cricket match against Rosemary Hall held on November 14, 1896.  Each is followed by a citation and link to its source.

"YOUNG WOMEN PLAY CRICKET.
-----
Interesting Game by Elevens of Students of Pelham Hall.

A cricket match was played by two teams belonging to Mrs. John Cunningham Hazen's school for young ladies at Pelham Manor last week that proved very interesting.  The match was played on Prospect Hill.  Visitors from New-York and Westchester County towns were present and cheered on the enthusiastic cricketers.

The young women composing the teams wore short white duck skirts and blue sweaters.  The letters P. H. were embroidered on the sweaters, representing Pelham Hall, the name of the school.  The game lasted four hours.  It was so spirited that none of the spectators went away until the result was known.  Miss Madeline Brown was Captain of the team that won the match by 1 point.  The members of the winning team were Miss Dorothy Day, Miss Marguerite O'Kane, Miss Edith Fowler, Miss Katherine Craig, Miss Laura Houghton, Miss Helen Furman, Miss Jane Wait, Miss Martha Dalzell, Miss Alice Painter, and Miss Helen Leland.

Miss Elva King, was Captain of the second team.  Those who fought with her for victory on the cricket field were her sister, Miss Annie King; Miss Eleanor Emmet of New-Rochelle, Miss Helen Loughran, Miss Mildred Goffe, Miss Annie O'Kane, Miss Helen Hunt, Miss Grace Bronson, Miss Grace Kimball, Miss Katherine Stearns, and Miss Marjorie Leland.  The individual prizes for the winning team were cuff links and studs of silver and blue enamel.  The prize for the Captain was cuff buttons and studs of gold set with carbuncles, given by Mrs. Hazen and Miss Edith C. Hazen.  

The defeated team received two great bunches of American Beauty roses.  The prizes were awarded under a famous oak tree 300 years old."

Source:  YOUNG WOMEN PLAY CRICKET-- Interesting Game by Elevens of Students of Pelham Hall, N.Y. Times, May 24, 1896, p. 13, col. 4.  

"PRETTY GIRLS PLAY CRICKET.
-----
Twenty-Two Fair Maidens Do Battle at Pelham Manor in Chilly Weather.
-----
PELHAM HALL THE VICTOR.
-----
Its Representatives Defeat the Students of Rosemary Hall, Wallingford, Conn.
----- 
BIG TURNOUT AT THE GAME.
-----

Aristocratic Pelham Manor was intensely excited yesterday over a novel contest waged between twenty-two maidens.  In football weather an exciting game of cricket was played on Prospect Hill.  The opposing teams were eleven pretty girls from Mrs. Hazen's select boarding school, Pelham Hall, and eleven equally pretty damsels  from Rosemary Hall, Wallingford, Conn.

Intense enthusiasm reigned in the little Westchester town.  All the well known residents of the fair sex in Pelham Manor turned out, despite the cold, to be present at the contest and to cheer for the girls who go to Mrs. Hazen's school.  Pelham Hall colors, light blue, were conspicuously displayed by its fair partisans, while society women who had accompanied the Rosemary Hall girls from Connecticut flaunted dark blue ribbons with ardent enthusiasm.  A large crowd of fashionably dressed folk witnessed the game, but only a few privileged men were among the spectators.  Rugs and warm wraps were in great demand to guard against the cold, bleak wind that brought color to the faces of those who sat around the grounds on camp chairs and benches.

ON THE FIELD.

At eleven o'clock the two teams made their appearance on the field.  They were greeted with tremendous cheers, and cries that would have done credit to a football field rent the air.  'Rah, rah, rah; hear us call; Hazen, Hazen, Pelham Hall!' shouted the supporters of the local team.  From the other side of the grounds, where waved the dark blue banner, came the answering shout of 'Who are, who are, who are we?  We are the girls of Rosemary!'  The Pelham Hall girls wore dark blue sweaters, with the letters 'P.H.' in light blue across the bosom, while their opponents wore white sweaters bearing the letters 'R.H.' in dark blue.  All wore short, dark

"GIRLS AT THE WICKETS
-----
A SPIRITED CRICKET GAME ON PROSPECT HILL.
-----
Pelham Hall Regains the Light-Blue Banner, Lost Last Year to Rosemary Hall, by 69 Runs.

PELHAM MANOR, N.Y., Nov. 14. -- Prospect Hill was the scene here to-day of a Winter contest of a most unusual kind.  Arrayed against each other on the cricket field were two elevens of young athletic maidens; one from Mrs. Hazen's boarding school, Pelham Hall, and the other from Rosemary Hall, a similar institution at Wallingford, Conn.

Bareheaded and wearing sweaters and short skirts, daughters of some of the most prominent men in the country defied the cold, wintry wind.  With enthusiasm and skill the twenty-two bowled, batted, and fielded.  A large crowd, chiefly composed of Pelham's most fashionable folk, witnessed the game.  Excitement ran high, for last year the Pelham Hall girls journeyed to Wallingford and were defeated by the Rosemary cricketers.  To-day the losers on that occasion struggled successfully to win back the light-blue banner they lost in Connecticut.

It was 11 o'clock when the Pelham Hall girls, in dark-blue sweaters, bearing the letters P. H. in light blue, and the Rosemary girls, in white sweaters, bearing the letters R. H. in dark blue, appeared on Prospect Hill.  The weather, the waving of ribbons and banners, and the college cries would have done justice to a Yale-Harvard football match.  The Connecticut girls had a large contingent of supporters who had traveled from Wallingford, and who proudly gathered round the banner which these athletic young women were to battle for.  

Rosemary Hall won the toss and put Pelham Hall in to bat.  The girls who attend the local boarding school are no novices.  For months they have been practicing, but to-day they surprised even their most ardent supporters.  Miss King, Captain of the Pelhamites, hit up 15 in excellent style, while Miss Leland ably assisted her.  The Rosemary bowlers were a little erratic, and the wides swelled the total so that when the last girl from Pelham Hall saw her wicket fall the home total was 81, a very formidable score to beat on such a wicket.

Rosemary Hall went to the wickets amid generous applause.  With the exception of Miss Cromwell, who batted splendidly, the Connecticut cricketers were unable to make any stand against the bowling of Miss King and Miss Paintor.  The bare-headed little Pelham Captain, who is a daughter of the Vice President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, won double laurels.  Chiefly owing to her prowess the Rosemary cracks were dismissed for the modest total of 26, or 55 runs behind.

Pelham Hall batted again, and again Capt. King made top score, hitting up 21 runs.  The rest of her team failed to do as well and Pelham's second venture ended for 51, or 106 runs ahead.  Rosemary Hall struggled hard to retain its supremacy, and Miss Cromwell again made top score.  But it was a forlorn hope, and at 3 o'clock Pelham Hall was victorious by 69 runs.

Then light-blue ribbons waved, and women threw their rugs and wraps aside and ran to congratulate the victorious girls.  ' 'Rah, 'rah, 'rah; hear us call; Hazen, Hazen, Pelham Hall!' they cried with a vigor that would have done credit to college boys.  In feebler tones, from the other side of the field came the cry, ' 'Rah, 'rah, 'rah; 'rah, 'rah, ree; we are the girls of Rosemary!'  The banner was won back, and joy reigned throughout Pelham Manor.  The two teams dined together in the evening at Pelham Hall.

The following is the score:


PELHAM HALL.


First Innings.
Second Innings.
Emily Gray, c. Hickory, b. Weston. . . . . . . . . 2
c. Hickory, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Mildred du Bois, c. Hickory, b. Weston. . . . . 0
b. Oriur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Annie King, b. Recneps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Run out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Eleanor Emmet, c. Getson, b. Orius. . . . . . . 2
c. Salguod, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Laura Haughton, b. Weston. . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
b. Recneps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Annie O’Kane, c. Hickory, b. Recneps. . . . . .7
b. Recneps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Helen Leland, c. Getson, b. Orius. . . . . . . . .13
c. Getson, b. Orius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Alice Paintor, b. Recneps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
c. and b. Orius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  0
Stewart Simpson, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
b. Orius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  0
Bertha Fenessey, b. Recneps. . . . . . . . . . . . 0
c. Salguod, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Dorethea Day, no out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Not out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Wides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Wides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

ROSEMARY HALL



First Innings.
Second Innings.
C. Linton, b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
R. Nator hit wicket, b. King . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Not out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
A. Recneps, run out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
A. Hickory, b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
E. Weston, b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
B. Getson, run out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
c. du Bots, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
A. Orius, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
H. Cromwell, not out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
c. and b. Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
J. Sobs, st., Emmet, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . .2
b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Grace Salguod, run out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
M. Dollertin, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Wides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Wides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 "


Source:  GIRLS AT THE WICKETS -- A SPIRITED CRICKET GAME ON PROSPECT HILL -- Pelham Hall Regains the Light-Blue Banner, Lost Last Year to Rosemary Hall, by 69 Runs, N.Y. Times, Nov. 15, 1896, p. 8, cols. 4-5.  


"GIRLS AT CRICKET.
-----
FAIR STUDENTS FROM PELHAM HALL AND ROSEMARY PLAYED AN INTERESTING MATCH ON SATURDAY.
-----


A cricket match between two teams of young women was played on Saturday at Prospect Hill, Pelham Manor and the game was played with all the enthusiasm of an intercollegiate football match, says the New York Sun.  Banners of light blue were carried by pretty girls, who cheered for Pelham Hall, and coaches and carriages lined the field with the same colors prominently displayed.  It was a match between Mrs. Hazen's Pelham Hall, a select institution of learning situated in the aristocratic village of Pelham Manor, and Rosemary Hall, an equally-select school of Wallingford, Ct.  The girls did not mind the cold weather, which benumbed their fingers and made the hard cricket-ball anything but a pleasant thing to catch or stop.  They kept pluckily at their work, and for five hours they ran around the field dressed in short skirts and sweaters, while the enthusiasm of the visitors was kept alive by the college yell which the large delegation kept repeating at every opportunity:

Who are who are,
Who are we? 
We are the girls
Of Rosemary.

This was the cry of the girls from Connecticut, and it would have done credit to a delegation of Yale students.

'Rah, 'Rah, 'Rah!
Hear us call!
Hazen, Hazen,
Pelham Hall.

This was the slogan of the admirers of the home team, and they kept it up with variations all through the game.  The Rosemary girls had trained diligently for the match.  They had had the advantage of a coach for several weeks past, and they were confident of victory.  Pelham Hall, however, noted as it is for every form of athletics, was not to be outdone by its New England cousin, and the girls had been practicing just as diligently, although they had to depend solely upon their own knowledge of the game and book rules.

As soon as the two teams took the field it was seen that their exhibition would not be the usual kind given by women cricketers.  The girls threw the ball like men; made good stops and catches; had no fear, and were altogether oblivious to hard knocks and bruised fingers.  Their hands were soon blue from the cold, but they cared not for that, and before the final decision of the game was reached two full innings had been played.

To the great delight of the majority of the spectators, Pelham Hall proved victorious, and by so comfortable a margin -- 69 runs -- as to leave no doubt of their superiority.  This result was brought about by their excellent bowling, and the manner in which Miss Annie King trundled the sphere with a fast round-arm delivery [that] was very delightful to watch.  She was the heroine of the match, for, in addition to her most useful work with the ball, she excelled at the bat, and in each inning of her side she made top scores.

All the bowlers adopted the round-arm style, and this may account for the large number of wides.  The ground was slippery, and, as the girls wore no spikes, a foothold was very hard to obtain.  Some of the most successful willow-wielders were treated to ovations as they came out, being hugged and kissed by their companions, and after the match Miss Annie King, the captain of the team, was borne away on the shoulders of the rest of the eleven, proudly waving the colors the team had won from their opponents."

Source:  GIRLS AT CRICKET -- FAIR STUDENTS FROM PELHAM HALL AND ROSEMARY PLAYED AN INTERESTING MATCH ON SATURDAY, Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express, Nov. 16, 1896, p. 11, col. 4 (NOTE:  Paid subscription required to access via this link).  

"CRICKET.
-----
Ladies Play Cricket.

The New York Sun says:  -- A cricket match between two teams of young women was played Saturday at Prospect Hill, Pelham Manor.  The game was played with all the enthusiasm of an intercollegiate football match.  Banners of light blue were carried by pretty girls, who cheered for Pelham Hall, and coaches and carriages lined the field with the same colors prominently displayed.  It was a match between Mrs. Hazen's Pelham Hall, a select institution of learning situated in the aristocratic village of Pelham Manor, and Rosemary Hall, an equally select school of Wallingford, Conn.  The girls did not mind the cold weather, which benumbed their fingers and made the hard cricket ball anything but a pleasant thing to catch or stop.  They kept pluckily at their work, and for five hours they ran around the field dressed in short skirts and sweaters, while the enthusiasm of the visitors was kept alive by the College yell which the large delegation kept repeating at every opportunity: --

Who are, who are, 
Who are we?
We are the girls 
Of Rosemary.

This was the slogan of the admirers of the home team, and they kept it up with variations all through the game.  The Rosemary girls had trained diligently for the match.  They had had the advantage of a coach for several weeks past, and they were confident of victory.  Pelham Hall, however, noted as it is for every form of athletics, was not to be outdone by its New England cousin, and the girls had been practicing just as diligently, although they had to depend solely upon their own knowledge of the game and book rules.

As soon as the two teams took the field it was seen that their exhibition would not be the usual kind given by women cricketers.  The girls threw the ball like men; made good stops and catches; had no fear, and were altogether oblivious to hard knocks and bruised fingers.  Their hands were soon blue from the cold, but they cared not for that, and before the final decision of the game was reached two full innings had been played.

To the great delight of the majority of the spectators, Pelham Hall proved victorious, and by so comfortable a margin -- 69 runs -- as to leave no doubt of their superiority.  This result was brought about by their excellent bowling, and the manner in which Miss Annie King trundled the sphere with a fast round-arm delivery [that] was very delightful to watch.  She was the heroine of the match, for, in addition to her most useful work with the ball, she excelled at the bat, and in each inning of her side she made top scores.

All the bowlers adopted the round-arm style, and this may account for the large number of wides.  The ground was slippery, and, as the girls wore no spikes, a foothold was very hard to obtain.  Some of the most successful willow-wielders were treated to ovations as they came out, being hugged and kissed by their companions, and after the match Miss Annie King, the captain of the team, was borne away on the shoulders of the rest of the eleven, proudly waving the colors the team had won from their opponents.  The score:



PELHAM HALL.


First Innings.
Second Innings.
Emily Gray, c. Hickory, b. Weston. . . . . . . . . 2
c. Hickory, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Mildred du Bois, c. Hickory, b. Weston. . . . . 0
b. Oriur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Annie King, b. Recneps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Run out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Eleanor Emmet, c. Getson, b. Orius. . . . . . . 2
c. Salguod, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Laura Haughton, b. Weston. . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
b. Recneps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Annie O’Kane, c. Hickory, b. Recneps. . . . . .7
b. Recneps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Helen Leland, c. Getson, b. Orius. . . . . . . . .13
c. Getson, b. Orius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Alice Paintor, b. Recneps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
c. and b. Orius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  0
Stewart Simpson, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
b. Orius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  0
Bertha Fenessey, b. Recneps. . . . . . . . . . . . 0
c. Salguod, b. Orius. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Dorethea Day, no out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Not out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
Wides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Wides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

ROSEMARY HALL



First Innings.
Second Innings.
C. Linton, b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
R. Nator hit wicket, b. King . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Not out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
A. Recneps, run out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
A. Hickory, b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
E. Weston, b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
B. Getson, run out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
c. du Bots, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
A. Orius, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
H. Cromwell, not out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
c. and b. Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
J. Sobs, st., Emmet, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . .2
b. King. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Grace Salguod, run out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0
M. Dollertin, b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
b. Paintor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0
Wides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Wides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 "


Source: CRICKET -- Ladies Play Cricket, The Gazette [Montreal, Canada], Nov. 17, 1896, p. 5, col. 3.  

"The Girls of Pelham Hall Victors.
-----

The match game of cricket between the young women of Rosemary Hall, in Wallingford, Conn., and those of Pelham Hall, was an affair of much interest in Pelham Manor on Saturday.  The prize, which was won by the girls of Pelham Hall, was a handsome blue and white silk banner.  The game began in the morning.  The young ladies were driven to the grounds in coaches draped in blue and white.  The opposing sides lined up with Miss Ana King as captain of Pelham Hall and Miss Harriet Spencer for Rosemary Hall.

The first inning resulted in 81 for Pelham and 26 for Rosemary, and in the second Pelham got 51 and Rosemary 38, giving the game to Pelham Hall by a score of 132 to 64 [sic].

Following the game the players were guests at a dinner served in the hall, and at a cotillion.  The favors were blue and white.  After the cotillion the guests departed, each side making the air ring with its respective yells. -- Tribune."

Source:  The Girls of Pelham Hall Victors, Daily Argus [Mount Vernon, NY], Nov. 17, 1896, Vol. XVIV, No. 1,1415, p. 1, col. 4.

"On Saturday last two teams of young women from Pelham Hall, Pelham Manor, New York, and Rosemary Hall, Wallingford, Conn., respectively, played a match game of cricket on the Pelham Hall grounds with all the accessories, pomp and glory of a regular college game.  There were the rival colors, college 'yells' and enthusiasm to burn.  The Pelham girls, coupling the name of their principal, Miss Hazen, with their cry, shouted:

Rah! Rah! Rah
Hear us call
Hazen! Hazen!
Pelham Hall.

To this the girls on the opposite of the field plied:

Who are, who are,
Who are we?
We are the girls 
Of Rosemaree.

Very little is said of the merit of the cricket played, which may be credited to the chivalrous consideration of the reporters, perhaps; but Pelham won by 69 runs.  And so we go."

Source:  [Untitled], The Buffalo Commercial, Nov. 17, 1896, p. 4, col. 4 (NOTE:  Paid subscription required to access via this link).  

"SPORTS OF THE AMATEUR . . .

THE pluck and enthusiasm manifested by the young ladies representing Pelham Hall and Rosemary in their cricket match at Pelham Manor last Saturday is significant of the growth of athleticism and the spirit of sportsmanship among the fair sex.  The temperature was sharp, and the hard cricket ball must have stung, but the fair players never winced, and, most remarkable of all, they could throw and bowl, even though they did make rather a remarkable record of 'wides.'  In no particular did they show the slightest sign of manliness, save when the Pelham girls hugged and kissed each other in joy over their victory."

Source:  SPORTS OF THE AMATEUR, Brooklyn Life [Brooklyn, NY], Nov. 21, 1896, p. 24 col. 1 (NOTE:  Paid subscription required to access via this link).  

"When it comes to athletics, the American girls are not it with the English girls.  A few days ago, all Pelham manor turned out to witness a cricket match between the Pelham Hall girls and the Rosemary girls, each 11 representing the school from which it was named.  The Pelham girls wore short and chick costumes of light blue; the Rosemary girls were in dark blue.  They all looked rosy and healthy, and entered into the contest with great vim and spirit."

Source:  [Untitled], Star Tribune [Minneapolis, MN], Dec. 4, 1896, p. 4, col. 4.

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