Historic Pelham

Presenting the rich history of Pelham, NY in Westchester County: current historical research, descriptions of how to research Pelham history online and genealogy discussions of Pelham families.

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Article on the History of Pelhamdale Published in 1925 After Tragic Fire

On Saturday, February 28, 1925, the beautiful Pelham Manor home known as Pelhamdale suffered a terrible fire that nearly destroyed the home.  The new owners of the home, the Wagner family, was in the midst of restoring the historic home.  

The day before the fire, workmen involved with the remodeling of the home built a coal fire in a grate within a fireplace on the second floor of the home for warmth and left it burning when they departed that evening.  At 6:00 a.m. the next morning, John Meltz was on his way to work at the local disposal plant.  As he walked past the home, he saw smoke rising from windows of the home.  He raced to the nearest fire box and turned in an alarm.  The old Pell Mansion was burning. 

Village of Pelham Manor firefighters responded promptly.  The fire was extensive and stubborn.  Soon they called for the assistance of firemen of the First Fire District in the Village of North Pelham.  Temperatures were near zero degrees, making the battle particularly difficult.  At least one of the firefighters, John Roggeveen, suffered frostbite on both hands.  

A crowd gathered as the firefighters battled the blaze. One in the crowd was William R. Montgomery who later became Town Historian. He had a glass negative camera with him and took a few photographs. One of those photographs appears immediately below.

Fire at Pelhamdale, 45 Iden Avenue, on February 28,
1925. Image from Glass Negative Photograph Taken by
William R. Montgomery on February 28, 1925. Courtesy
of The Office of The Historian of the Town of Pelham.
NOTE: Click on Image To Enlarge.

The following week, Montgomery wrote an article for the local newspaper, The Pelham Sun, on the history of Pelhamdale, a home that today is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.  The article is a loving tribute to a Pelham treasure that, at the time was at risk of the wrecking ball due to the fire.  The text of the article appears in its entirety below, followed by a citation and link to its source.

Burned On Saturday, Feb. 28th, 1925.
By William R. Montgomery

The Pell House as it appears in the cut is considerably larger than the old house, which was built about 1750 by Philip Pell, whose grandson, Colonel David Pell, occupied it from Revolutionary times until his death in 1823.  The old homestead was built with thick walls of stone, having two large chimneys, one on each end.  It was two stories high and roofed with hand-made shingles.  The main floor of the old house is the basement of the present building, with a hall extending from the front to the rear.  The former beautiful front entrance facing the east and looking out on the old Boston Road (in olden times commonly known as the King's Highway) can still be seen.  Its doorway is as fine an example of Colonial architecture as one may see anywhere.  If fact, one would have to go to Deerfielld, Mass., to equal it.  The ground around the present building has been made considerably higher than in the early days, and for that reason the old entrance seems to be below the grade.  The view from the house up and down the Hutchinson valley was beautiful and inspiring.  The large chestnut tree known as Gen. Howe's tree, was on this estate, and the old St. Paul's Church at Eastchester could also be seen in the distance.  This old Pell house was the scene of many stirring events during the history of the old Manor of Pelham.

A tradition tells us that it was at this house that the messenger called to give the alarm of the landing of the British troops at Pell's Point.  Upon hearing the news young David Pell (later Colonel) rushed to the river and rowed down to Eastchester, where some Americans were encamped.  We are all familiar with the critical battle of Pelham, so well outlined by William Abbott [sic] in his book entitled 'The Battle of Pelham.'  We also know that this successful retreat of the American Army enable Gen. Washington to escape a well laid trap; Gen. Washington, reaching the heights of White Plains without any serious trouble.

Tradition also informs us that the messenger who carried the news to David Pell was a girl of gentle birth whose nimble feet lightly touched the ground as she ran along the old Pell's Point Road.

'France may revere its Joan of Arc, and England may bow its head at the name of Edith Cavell, but the old Manor had no Longfellow to immortalize this early morning heroine.  She lies in old St. Paul's churchyard at Eastchester, her deeds unsung and forgotten.'

Colonel David Pell lived in the old homestead until his death in 1823.  He likewise, is buried in St. Paul's churchyard.  In 1824 his widow sold the estate to James Hay of an old Scotch family, who enlarged the building by adding several floors and making the original first floor a basement.  He also changed the main entrance to the other side of the building and made two large bay window extensions with a doorway between them.  This leads into a large circular reception room which contained statuary in niches and a fine curved door to correspond with the outline of the room.  Fortunately, this room with its door is saved, except the ceiling plaster.  

Still later this building was further enlarged by raising the roof and adding about four feet of brick work above the stone walls.  James Hay caused to be embedded in the stone wall the Hay coat of arms, which according to Bolton was granted by Kenneth III, King of Scotland, in the year 980, for bravery on the field of battle.

The Hays named the estate Pelham Dale and planted many trees and beautiful shrubs, so that for many years it was considered the most magnificent place in New York.  We might note here that the original Pell's Point Road was situated much nearer the stone house than the present Wolf's Lane.  Wolf's Lane in Pelham Manor was constructed by Mr. James Hay and Mr. Francis Secor at their own expense and for many years was considered private property, being closed to the public one day each year.

Upon the death of Mr. Hay, the estate was sold to Mr. Lord of Lord & Taylor, and later conveyed to the Hargous family, who lived on the place for many years until Mr. C. Coudert of Coudert Bros., a well known international lawyer, bought the property and made further alterations, which, however, detracted from its beauty.

Mr. Rodman, a member of the old Pell family, finally bought the property, and for over fifteen years neglected it.  Later it became the rendezvous of tramps.  Recently the building and part of the grounds passed into the hands of the Wagner family, who are very anxious to restore it to its former stateliness.  The new Hutchinson River Parkway will give it a setting equal to its former beautiful surroundings.


Source:  Montgomery, William R., THE OLD PELL HOUSE -- Burned On Saturday, Feb. 28th, 1925,  The Pelham Sun, Mar. 6, 1925, Vol. 16, No. 1, p. 4, cols. 3-4.  

View of Pelhamdale from Iden Avenue on September
3, 2014. Source: "Pelhamdale" in Wikipedia -- The Free
Encyclopedia (visited May 7, 2016).
NOTE: Click on Image to Enlarge.

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I have written about the lovely historic home known as "Pelhamdale" (and "Pelham Dale") on numerous occasions.  For a few of many examples, see:

Thu., Oct. 20, 2016:  Fears in 1934 and 1935 that the Historic Home Known as Pelhamdale Would Be Razed

Fri, May 13, 2016 1851:  Advertisement Offering Farm and Mansion Known as Pelhamdale for Lease.

Fri., Sep. 04, 2015:  Sale of the Pre-Revolutionary War Home Known as Pelhamdale in 1948.

Tue., Jun. 24, 2014:  Story of Pelhamdale, the Old Stone House by the Bridge, Once Owned by David J. Pell.

Thu., Jan. 03, 2008:  Charges in 1808 Against Lieutenant-Colonel David J. Pell of Pelham that He "Indulges in Inebriety and Habitual Drunkeness." 

Thu., Oct. 26, 2006:  Genealogical Data Regarding David Jones Pell of the Manor of Pelham, Revolutionary War Officer

Mon., Oct 15, 2007:  Town Proclamation Recognizes Celebration of the 250th Anniversary of Pelhamdale at 45 Iden Avenue

Wed., Nov. 02, 2005:  Engraving by P.M. Pirnie Showing Pelhamdale in 1861

Thu., Oct. 13, 2005:  Two More Pelham Ghost Stories

Mon., Sep. 19, 2005:  The Long-Hidden Pastoral Mural Uncovered in Pelhamdale, a Pre-Revolutionary War Home

Mon., Apr. 11, 2005:  More From the William R. Montgomery Glass Negative Collection (includes photograph of fire at Pelhamdale on February 28, 1925)

Tue., Mar. 22, 2005:  The 1790 U.S. Census Information for the Township of Pelham.

Archive of the Historic Pelham Web Site.
Home Page of the Historic Pelham Blog
Order a Copy of "Thomas Pell and the Legend of the Pell Treaty Oak."

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Tuesday, November 29, 2016

1902 Report on Activities of The First Pelham Country Club on Fowler Avenue

During a meeting held on May 12, 1898, Pelham residents organized what is known today as the "First Pelham Country Club."  The club is not related either to today's Pelham Country Club or to the club that once stood along Shore Road known simply as "the Country Club."  Rather, the First Pelham Country Club eventually became today's Wykagyl Country Club in the City of New Rochelle. 

Immediately after its organization, the First Pelham Country Club constructed six holes of golf.  Within a short time the club added three additional holes for a nine-hole golf course.  The club built the course on leased land along today's Fowler Avenue.  The course extended from Colonial Avenue to Boston Post Road.  The club used a residence that stood on the land near Colonial Avenue as a clubhouse.  By 1904, the club secured land to open a larger course in New Rochelle.  The club became today's Wykagyl Country Club.

A map published in 1899 shows the golf course.  A detail from that map showing the course appears below.  According to the map, the club named each of the nine holes of the course.  The clubhouse stood near the intersection of today's Fowler Avenue and Colonial Avenue.  The first hole was named "Old Boston Post Road" and ran parallel to Colonial Avenue.  The first tee was next to the clubhouse.  There were two bunkers in the first fairway with the green adjacent to Colonial Avenue not far from the border with New Rochelle.

The second hole was named "Sycamore."  Its tee was not far from the green of the first hole near Colonial Avenue.  The fairway of the second hole proceeded from Colonial Avenue toward Boston Post Road, extending about half the distance between the two roads.  It included two bunkers across the fairway.  The third hole, named "Orchard," ran parallel to Boston Post Road with its tee box near the border with New Rochelle and its green adjacent to Boston Post Road.  There were no bunkers along the fairway of the third hole, but there were terraces near the green.  

The fourth hole, named "Turnpike," had a tee box inland next to the last third of the fairway for the third hole.  The terraces across the third hole fairway extended sufficiently inland so that the "inland" end of the terraces crossed the fairway of the fourth hole as a hazard for that hole as well.  The green for the fourth hole was adjacent to the Boston Turnpike not far from today's intersection of that roadway with Fowler Avenue.

The fifth hole was named "Glen" because it ran through a gentle valley parallel to the location of today's Fowler Avenue toward a small lake that stood about halfway between Boston Post Road and Colonial Avenue.  There was a single bunker near the green that stood just shy of the lake.  The sixth hole was named "Lake."  Its tee box was adjacent to the green of the fifth hole its fairway ran roughly parallel to the location of today's Fowler Avenue, with the lake serving as a hazard along the fairway.  There also was a bunker immediately before the sixth green that stood near the clubhouse.  Thus, the first six holes roughly followed the perimeter of the rectangular property leased by the club.  The remaining three holes formed a rough triangle within that rectangle.

The seventh hole was named "Forest."  Its tee box was near the green of the sixth hole so that a portion of the bunker in front of the sixth green extended across the fairway just in front of the seventh hole.  The fairway extended diagonally across the interior of the property roughly toward Boston Post Road at the New Rochelle border.  

The eighth hole was named  "Oaktree."  Its fairway was roughly parallel to the fairway of the second hole, extending from its tee box near the fairway of the third hole and proceeding toward Colonial Avenue.  There were two bunkers in the eighth fairway.

The ninth and final hole was named "Home."  It ran very roughly parallel to the first hole.  Its tee box was near the eighth green.  The fairway extended toward the clubhouse with two bunkers crossing the fairway as hazards.

Published in 1899.  The Road on the Left is Boston
Post Road.  The Small Road on the Right is Colonial
Avenue.  Source:  Fairchild, John F., "Town of
Pelham Plate 22" in Atlas of the City of Mount Vernon
and the Town of Pelham, Plate 22 (Mount Vernon, NY:
John F. Fairchild, 1899).  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

In 1902 the local Mount Vernon newspaper published a report on planned improvements at the Pelham Country Club including plans to widen and lengthen the course to give "better turf and greater playing distance."

The same report indicated that negotiations were then underway to lease additional property to permit construction of a "base ball field" for the "Country Club nine" and to build a "squash-court building" with accommodations for indoor ping-pong and shuffleboard.  It does not appear that any additional property was leased, nor that any such "squash-court building" was built.  

The report further announced that beginning on Decoration Day (today's Memorial Day), the club would be serving dinner to its members and their guests "on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays."

Only two years after this report, the First Pelham Country Club was unable to renew its lease for the property and began its move to New Rochelle as the Wykagyl Country Club.

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Below is the text of the report published in The Daily Argus of Mount Vernon.  It is followed by a citation and link to its source.  


The management begs to announce that improvements in the links are now under way, as the result of which the course will be widened and lengthened, giving better turf and greater playing distance.

The links is in better condition today than it has ever been before at this time of year and we anticipate putting and fair greens of exceptional quality during the season.  

The schedule of handicap and scratch events is being made up and will include five-men matches with prominent local clubs.

Negotiations are pending for the lease of additional property, to be converted into a base ball field, which we hope may be the scene of many victories for the Country Club nine.

The erection of a 'squash-court' building, containing accommodations as well for 'ping-pong, shuffleboard and other indoor sports, is under consideration and will be built if sufficient interest is shown.

A club dinner will be served to members and their guests at the Club house on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, commencing Friday, May 30 (Decoration Day).

We hope to receive the cordial and hearty support of every member in our efforts to make the Club agreeable and attractive.

A new tennis court has been added to the outfit and a lot secured upon which a new club house will be erected in the fall.

E. M. Fowler, chairman house committee; A. K. Alexander, chairman greens committee."

Source:  PELHAM COUNTRY CLUB, The Daily Argus [Mount Vernon, NY], Apr. 5, 1902, p. 6, col. 2.  

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I have written before about the First Pelham Country Club that became the Wykagyl Country Club.  See, e.g.:

Mon., Jan. 11, 2010:  The First Pelham Country Club's Plans for a July 4, 1898 Opening of its New Nine-Hole Golf Course Accessible by a New Trolley Line

Thu., Nov. 26, 2009:  The First "Pelham Country Club" Established in 1898 Built a Nine-Hole Golf Course in Pelham in 1898.  

Bell, Blake, The Early Days of Golf in Pelham, The Pelham Weekly, Vol. XIII, No. 36, Sep. 10, 2004, p. 12, col. 2.

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Monday, November 28, 2016

When Did the Last Trolley Car Make its Final Trip in Pelham?

A quirky "funeral" cortege passed through Pelham on that day long ago.  Bedecked with crepe, the somber procession traveled slowly from the New Rochelle border on Boston Post Road until it reached Pelhamdale Avenue where it turned there toward Colonial Avenue.  

Sadly, few cared.  

Among the few who cared was a handful who understood the significance of the procession.  Others, however, were along for the ride.  They didn't care.  They just wanted to ride the trolley car rather than walk to their destinations. . . . . 

The "cortege" that day was the last trolley car ever to make a trip on Pelham streets.  The date was December 16, 1950.  Thankfully, the press of those days recorded the event for prosperity -- even if only briefly.

Did our forebears truly understand the significance of that day?  Of course.  A photograph confirms that on the final ride of the trolley through Pelham streets, an important sign hung on the car's side.  It read:  "A STREET CAR NAMED EXPIRE."  

A Streetcar Named Desire, of course, was a play written by Tennessee Williams.  Tennessee Williams was one of a handful of the foremost American playwrights of the 20th century.  His play, A Streetcar Named Desire, opened on Broadway on December 3, 1947.  It closed more than two years later.  The work received the Pulitizer Prize for Drama in 1948.  For the next few years, it was an important part of American lore, Broadway legend, and artful drama.  

Everyone that day knew of "A Streetcar Named Desire."  That, of course, is why someone -- no one knows to this day who -- hand-lettered a sign to hang on the side of the A-Line trolley on its last ride through Pelham.  The sign read:  "A STREET CAR NAMED EXPIRE."

The author of the sign showed wit.  Apparently, operators of trolley lines throughout the United States agreed.  

For years thereafter, as trolley cars ended their runs across the United States., the last cars to run often carried a familiar sign that read "A STREET CAR NAMED EXPIRE."  Among many examples was the supposed last trolley car in Los Angeles that ran in December, 1952.  It carried a sign reading "The Street Car Named Expire."  So did the last trolley car that ran in Indianapolis about a month later in early January, 1953.   

Once again, Pelham found itself among the nation's leaders. . . . . .

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Below is the text of a number of brief items relevant to today's posting.  Each is followed by a citation and link to its source.

"Last Trolley Ends It All

New Rochelle, Dec. 16 (U.P.) -- This suburban town's last trolley car made its final run today.  It carried a sign that read:  'The Streetcar Named Expire.'"

Source:  Last Trolley Ends It All, Brooklyn Eagle, Dec. 17, 1950, 110th Year, No. 346, p. 3, col. 5.  

Photograph of the Last Trolley To Pass Through Pelham
from New Rochelle to Mount Vernon Proceeding West from
New Rochelle, Through Pelham, to Mount Vernon.  In Pelham
the Trolley Passed Along Boston Post Road to Pelhamdale
Avenue and Then Onto Colonial Avenue to Wolfs Lane and
to Mount Vernon.  Caption for the Photograph Appears 
Immediately Below, Followed by a Citation and Link to
its Source:  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

"LAST LONG MILE looms for carbarn-bound 'A' trolley as it starts final leg of run to oblivion, appropriately decked in crepe and prophetic sign, 'A Street Car Named Expire.'  There were few mourners at obsequies here Saturday morning, the principal ceremonies having taken place in New Rochelle. -- Staff Photo."

Source:  LAST LONG MILE, The Daily Argus [Mount Vernon, NY], Dec. 18, 1950, p. 23, cols. 3-5.  

"So from 1930 to 1950 automobile and bus commuters entering New York from Westchester and Fairfield, counties traversed by Route 1, rose by roughly 167 percent, while railroad commuters rose less than 4 percent.  By the end of 1950 a trolley emblazoned as The Streetcar Named Expire made its final run on the Boston Post Road, west from New Rochelle to Pelham, to be replaced thereafter by buses." 

Source:  Jaffe, Eric, The King's Best Highway - The Lost History of The Boston Post Road, The Route That Made America, p. 221 (NY, NY: Scribner, 2010).

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Friday, November 25, 2016

A Pelham Resident Rode With General George Washington on Evacuation Day in 1783

Happy Evacuation Day dear Pelham.  Today is the 233rd anniversary of the original Evacuation Day on November 25, 1783 when British troops departed Manhattan at the close of the Revolutionary War and George Washington, his staff, and troops made a triumphal entry into New York City before cheering throngs of ecstatic Americans.  Among the members of General Washington's staff riding with him that triumphant day was Manor of Pelham resident Philip Pell III (1753 - 1811).  

Philip Pell III (often referenced as Philip Pell Jr. and Col. Philip Pell) is one of the most illustrious citizens ever to have lived in Pelham.  Born July 7, 1753, he was the eldest son of Philip and Gloriana (Treadwell / aka Tredwell) Pell.  He served as Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Continental Army (and, some have claimed, for a time, as Acting Judge Advocate General) during the Revolutionary War.  He served as a Delegate to the Continental Congress, a member of the New York State Assembly, a Regent of the University of the State of New York, and Surrogate of Westchester County.  Pell lived in a home that he built near today's Colonial Avenue (the old Boston Post Road) and today's Cliff Avenue.  The 1750 date stone from his home that no longer stands is embedded in the side of a monument to him standing next to today's Pelham Memorial High School.  Pell was a Trustee of St. Paul's Church in the Town of Eastchester and is buried in the churchyard cemetery there (now in the City of Mount Vernon, New York).

The Homestead of Colonel Philip Pell III that Once
Stood Near Today's Colonial Avenue (the old Boston
Post Road) and Today's Cliff Avenue. Source:
Montgomery, William R. & Montgomery, Frances E.,
Colonel Philip Pell (1753-1811) Abridged from "The Pells
of Pelham," The Pelham Sun, Oct. 21, 1938, pg. 11,
col. 3.  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

A host of sources reference Philip Pell's ride with General Washington into New York City on Evacuation Day in 1783.  See, e.g., Robbins, William A., "Descendants of Edward Tre(a)dwell Through His Son John" (Part II) in The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. XLIII, No. 2, p. 127 & p. 136 (NY, NY:  Apr. 1912); Scharf, J. Thomas, History of Westchester County New York Including Morrisania, Kings Bridge, and West Farms, Which Have Been Annexed to New York City, Vol. I, p. 538 (Philadelphia, PA:  L. E. Preston & Co., 1886); Bolton, Robert, The History of the Several Towns, Manors, and Patents of the County of Westchester from its First Settlement to the Present Time Carefully Revised by its Author, Vol. II, pp. 67-68 (NY, NY:  Chas. F. Roper, 1881).

On that famous day, General George Washington's ride into the City of New York was delayed until the afternoon because American troops spied a British flag flying in the City and wanted it removed before Washington rode into Manhattan.  It turned out that upon boarding ships and departing, the British troops had nailed a British flag to the top of a flagpole that, according to tradition, they also greased so it could not be climbed easily.  After a number of unsuccessful attempts to remove the flag, a ladder was used and wooden cleats were nailed to the pole to permit an army veteran, John Van Arsdale, to pull down the British flag and replace it with an American flag before the British fleet had sailed away.  

Currier & Ives Print, 1857.  The Library of Congress Prints and
Photographs Division, Digital ID cph.3b51184.

For many years after the Revolutionary War, well into the mid-19th century, New York City celebrated Evacuation Day each November 25th.  The event celebrated that time in 1783 when General George Washington led his staff including Pell and the Continental Army from his former headquarters north of New York City across the Harlem River then southward through Manhattan on the roadway we know today as Broadway to the Battery.  Each year New York City celebrated Evacuation Day with joyous revelry.  According to some accounts, one of the most popular annual traditions involved boys who competed to tear down a British flag from a greased pole in Battery Park.

As the nineteenth century waned, so did the celebration of Evacuation Day.  According to one source:

"The importance of the commemoration was waning in 1844, with the approach of the Mexican-American War of 1846–1848.  

However, the dedication of the monument to William J. Worth, the Mexican-American War general, at Madison Square was consciously held on Evacuation Day 1857.  

The observance of the date was also diminished by the Thanksgiving Day Proclamation by 16th President Abraham Lincoln on October 3, 1863, that called on Americans "in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next as a day of thanksgiving."  That year, Thursday fell on November 26.  In later years, Thanksgiving was celebrated on or near the 25th, making Evacuation Day redundant. . . .

Over time, the celebration and its anti-British sentiments became associated with the local Irish American community.  The event was officially celebrated for the last time on November 25, 1916 with a march down Broadway for a flag raising ceremony by sixty members of the Old Guard.  The position of the flagstaff at this time was described as near Battery Park's sculptures of John Ericsson and Giovanni da Verrazzano."

Source:  "Evacuation Day (New York)," Wikipedia -- The Free Encyclopedia (visited Nov. 20, 2016).  

New York City, Nov. 25th, 1783" Lithograph by Lithographer
Edmund P. Restein (1837-1891) (Philadelphia, PA:  1879) from
the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division,
Digital ID pga.02468.  NOTE:  Click on Image to Enlarge.

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I have written extensively about Colonel Philip Pell, Jr. in the past.  For a few of the many examples of such postings, see:

Fri., Mar. 9, 2007:  Abstract of Will of Philip Pell, Sr. of the Manor of Pelham Prepared in 1751 and Proved in 1752.  [This is an abstract of the will of the father of Col. Philip Pell.] 

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Thursday, November 24, 2016

An Important Thanksgiving Sermon Delivered in 1865 at Christ Church at the Close of the Civil War

"Teach your children well, 
Their father's hell did slowly go by."

-- "Teach Your Children Well," Song Performed by Crosby,
Stills, Nash & Young from the Album "Déjà Vu" Released
March 11, 1970.  Song Lyrics by Graham Nash.

It is Thanksgiving Day in Pelham and throughout our beloved nation.  It is a day to give thanks for many blessings.

By Presidential Proclamation signed by President Andrew Johnson on October 28, 1865, Thanksgiving Day was celebrated that year on Thursday, December 7.  That day in Pelham, many local residents gathered in the sanctuary of Christ Church in Pelham Manor to give thanks and to hear a sermon preached by their Rector, Edward W. Syle.  Reverend Syle served as the Rector of Christ Church from 1864 until 1868.

According to Reverend Syle, Pelhamites assembled in the church that Thanksgiving day to give thanks for the "cessation of that stupendous outburst of war" known as the American Civil War.  The patriotic and optimistic sermon Reverend Syle delivered that Thanksgiving was tempered with warnings that the entire nation had a responsibility to use every day, every opportunity, every institution, and every moment to teach all children and grandchildren the difference between right and wrong so that terrible events like those that precipitated the American Civil War would never happen again.  

It was the first Thanksgiving after the end of the War, the most terrible tragedy yet to befall the young Republic.  The sermon Reverend Syle delivered that day was profoundly moving to many.  It so moved members of the Parish that a committee approached the Reverend and asked his permission to publish the sermon and to have the Reverend agree to deliver it again three days later during regular Sunday services.  Reverend Syle agreed.  He delivered the sermon again three days later.  The sermon was published as a booket within a matter of weeks.

Considered solely in its historical context, the Thanksgiving sermon delivered by Reverend Syle provides an important and fascinating glimpse into the minds of the citizens of Pelham at the conclusion of the Civil War.  It reveals much about their fears, their hopes, their patriotism, their sense of the Union's accomplishment, and their optimistic expectation that the Republic would continue in perpetuity.  Indeed, the Reverend entitled his sermon "The Perpetuity of National Life."

A large part of Reverend Syle's words delivered to his Pelham flock that Thanksgiving Day 151 years ago evokes the simple words of Graham Nash penned 105 years later and quoted above:  "Teach your children well, their fathers' hell did slowly go by."  

Edward W. Syle was born in England on February 17, 1817.  He came to the United States and graduated from Virginia Theological Seminary. He married Rebbecca Janet Cunningham in Baltimore, Maryland in 1845.  That year, he was sent with his wife to Shanghai to accompany Bishop Boone as a missionary to assist the Chinese.  He returned to the United States in 1853 for health reasons and soon was posted to the New York region to work with "destitute Chinese in New York City."   

After the onset of the Civil War, Syle became Rector of Christ Church in Pelham Manor in 1864.  During the final two years of the Civil War he worked with Union soldiers and Rebel prisoners on nearby David's Island where a military hospital was located and, in 1865, held weekly services for rebel prisoners of war on Hart Island.  He served as Rector of the church until 1868.  Late in his life Syle returned to his native Great Britain where, on October 5, 1890 he died.  

The words of the Thanksgiving sermon by Reverend Syle are poignant and piercing.  They are well worth reading this Thanksgiving Day.  It is easy to see ourselves and our society today in the mirror of Reverend Syle's words written and delivered more than 150 years ago.  Indeed, his words should be recommended reading for those in Pelham celebrating this Thanksgiving Day, 2016.  

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The entire text of the Thanksgiving sermon "The Perpetuity of National Life" delivered by Reverend Edward W. Syle at Christ Church on Thanksgiving Day, Thursday, December 7, 1865, appears immediately below.  It is followed by a citation and link to its source.

[Title Page]

The Perpetuity of National Life.
New York:


PELHAM, WESTCHESTER CO., Dec. 15th, 1865.


Rev. and Dear Sir: — Several of your parishioners, to whom the Sermon preached by you on last Thanksgiving Day (and repeated by request on the following Sabbath) was most acceptable, as being eminently appropriate to the occasion, and to the present condition of our country, have expressed a desire that the Christian and patriotic sentiments inculcated in it should be more widely disseminated, by its publication in pamphlet form.  We would therefore request (if entirely agreeable to yourself) that you will enable us to gratify this wish, by furnishing us with the manuscript of your Sermon, for that purpose.  

We are, Rev. and Dear Sir, 

Respectfully, your sincere friends, 

PELHAM PRIORY, 20th Dec. 1865. 

MESSRS. R. EMMET, WM. H. LEROY, and others. 

My Dear Friends and Parishioners: — Your gratifying request can hardly receive any other reply than a ready assent.  And yet the difference between the impression made by a Discourse delivered to an attached congregation, and that of the same words when merely read by others, is great enough to make one pause before printing what he is quite ready to preach.  At the same time, I do not hesitate to avow that I regard the views and principles of my Sermon as important; and if you judge them adapted to be useful in pamphlet form, the manuscript is at your service for the purpose of publication. 

Believe me to be, 
With sincere regard, your Friend and Pastor, 

E. W. SYLE. 

[Page 5 - NOTE:  Some pages in the booklet are blank and have not been designated here.  No text is being omitted.]


"Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes have seen; and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life; but teach them thy sons, and thy sons' sons' — DEUT. 4 : 9. 

THERE are times when events speak for themselves; and there are states of feeling which are spontaneous — requiring no arguments to produce them, but almost resenting any attempt to heighten their intensity by mere use of words. 

What captive, just set free, would care to hear a dissertation on the blessings of liberty, or the duty of feeling happy?  What convalescent needs to have the advantages of health demonstrated to his understanding, or the joyous feeling of returning strength urged upon him as a matter of duty?  What mariner who finds refuge in a safe harbor, after a perilous storm, wants to be told that it is a good thing to he preserved from shipwreck, or that it is proper for him to experience a feeling of relief?  

It would be counted an impertinence to obtrude such counsels at such times; and the effect of attempting it would be to cause a revulsion of thought 

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and feeling quite contrary to what may have been designed and desired.  Not less incongruous, dear Christian friends, would it be, on such an occasion as this, to present an array of facts bearing on the reasons that exist for national thankfulness, or to demonstrate that the feeling of gratitude to the King of Kings ought to fill the heart of every worshipper in this house to-day. 

We are thankful:  it is a matter of the simplest consciousness with us; needing no demonstration and admitting of no argument.  We know we have reason to feel this gratitude; so that we want no one to tell us what we all so instinctively understand and appreciate. 

What then shall be the subject of our remarks on this auspicious day?  Shall we have nothing to say, one to another, concerning the perils of the past, and the blessings of the present hour? Shall we content ourselves with the simple enjoyment of our deliverances and exemptions; and take no thought for the coming years; but trust that the powerful hand which has so signally sustained and guided thus far, will still sustain and guide in all future emergencies?  

Such trust we well may cherish; and in proportion as it is a simple and well-placed confidence in the God and Father of us all, and is not a mere blind, unreasoning hopefulness, we shall be ready to give heed to what God himself has spoken to a people who had just been brought through great troubles, and had experienced a wonderful deliverance. 

Just eighty years before, the same Moses, through whom these words were addressed to the Jewish nation, had made his first essay for their deliverance — 

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thinking they would understand his purpose and welcome him as their prince and champion; but their minds were not prepared; they were comparatively content with their condition; they preferred the fleshpots of Egypt to the prospect of emancipation; and Moses fled away from them and from Pharaoh, finding in Midian a refuge and a home; so that for forty long years he sojourned there, keeping the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, and (as we suppose) composing the most ancient work extant, and one of the most sublime of all poems — the book of Job:  a production worthy of a scholar, a hero, a genius, and a legislator! and Moses was all these. 

After the forty years thus well spent, after that maturity of mind had been developed which constituted the providential preparation for his future work, then came the alarming summons to undertake the leadership of that down-trodden people who had previously refused his aid, and whose condition had become ten-fold worse than before — with this exception, that, whereas formerly they had not been ready to accept deliverance, now they sighed by reason of their bondage, and their cry came up unto God by reason of their bondage, for it was very sore.  

We will not trace out the steps of their exodus from Egypt, nor dwell upon their faithless and faint-hearted shrinking from the Divine directions given to them, nor will we delineate the provocations which marked their weary wandering in the wilderness for another forty long years.  Enough, that during all this time, Moses was their leader, and that he brought them once again to the very borders of the promised land, and gave to the new generation that had sprung 

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up a new and fuller declaration of the laws of God -- adding his own earnest exhortations and solemn warnings.  How far his prophetic eye penetrated the obscurity of the remote future, or how far it was mere human sagacity which prompted his forebodings, it is plain that he anticipated for the people of his care anything but an untroubled career.  The great alternatives of obedience with prosperity on the one hand, and of disobedience with destruction on the other, were so plainly, so strongly, so repeatedly put before them, that we, who read these things in the light of the subsequent sorrows which mark the Jewish history, wonder at the little heed they gave to the counsels — so profoundly wise, as well as so tenderly affectionate — of the venerable chief to whom they owed so much.  But — alas for them, and for the world! — those words of wisdom were disregarded; and the nation that had been so miraculously delivered and so marvellously preserved; so carefully instructed and so signally blessed; at last brought ruin upon themselves by neglecting that which, had they observed, the glory of God's chosen people, instead of their shame, would have been recorded on the page of history; they would have been recognized universally as chief among the nations, and their capital as the joy of the whole earth! 

They had been, at the period when our text was spoken, brought through all their difficulties; their experiences had been varied and animating; under almost every form of trial they had been sustained; but there remained for them much yet to accomplish — even the entire subjugation of the iniquitous Ca- 

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naanites; and the more difficult task of resisting the idolatrous allurements which would beset them when they should be fully established in the promised land.  It was in view of these things that Moses exhorted them in the words of our Text — "only take heed'' said he. "Be not careless and confident concerning thyself, as though it were guaranteed that thou shouldest never err.  Keep thy soul diligently : let not other things interfere with chief attention to those things which thine eyes have seen.  Nay : let these be Iife-long subjects of meditation; and, moreover, teach them to thy children, and to their children also; lest they, being ignorant, uninstructed, uninformed, fall into great troubles, and experience afresh those miseries of the past from which thou hast been thyself delivered : let them be spared this renewal of your sorrows." 

This last consideration is that on which we would particularly dwell — the duty of instructing the young in the lessons of the past; of instilling into their minds true principles on all subjects, not counting it a matter of indifference "what the children think," but realizing and remembering that the seeds of thought sown in the minds of our children (yes, and of our little grandchildren), are sure to germinate there, and to bear fruit in due season — perhaps long after we ourselves have passed away; but perhaps, on the other hand, much sooner than any of us would anticipate! 

The life-time of one generation is long enough to develop a harvest of mischief which a whole nation may reap, to their sorrow. Thirty or forty years ago, 

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and the greater part of those who have striven and suffered in the great national struggle were mere children — and not a small proportion of them little babes in their mothers' arms; nay, half that number of years has sufficed to determine the character and form the opinions of perhaps the most efficient elements of those armies which have engaged in mortal strife — some surviving; but many, oh, how many! going down to premature and bloody graves. 

And how were these taught?  Where did they imbibe the principles which led to these results?  What was the nature of the education which prepared them for the emergency that called for action?  It was not the stately teachings of the college professor — though these had their proportionate effect; it was not the careful instructions of the regular school, though these also exercised a large influence in their way; it was not even the more authoritative declarations of the pulpit, though these gave their sanction to the broad general principles which embrace all moral questions.  More than all these — more in number, and greater in influence — were the unobserved, informal, unconscious teachings and learnings that went on by the fireside and at the dinner-table, in the nursery and on the play-ground, over the daily newspaper and the published census, at the political meeting and at the flag-raising; by the anniversary oration and by the pungent pamphlet; on the steamboat and rail-car, in the village lyceum and at the corners of the streets — on these, and many other like occasions, were the opinions formed and the courses of action resolved upon, which culmina-

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ted in that stupendous outburst of war, for the cessation of which we are this day assembled to return thanks to Him who is at once the God of battles and the Prince of Peace.  It was by means of that unceasing indoctrination which always goes on when men are in earnest on any subject, that those great results have been reached, the magnitude and importance of which have fixed the gaze of the astonished world. It was not the phrenzy [sic] of a moment, but the determination of those who had been prepared for the part they sustained by life-long teachings and innumerable influences; it was by that process which Moses both describes and enjoins when he says — "Thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." (Deut. vi. 7.)  

Had such diligence and earnestness been exhibited in the inculcation of right principles of national duty and national morality, throughout the whole nation during the past thirty years, what might not have been spared to this generation!  And if the next generation is to be spared the like sufferings, it must be by more diligence and less indifference on the part of those who now see and feel how great a price has been paid for the perpetuation of those national blessings that have been imperilled.  Foolish notions must not be allowed to pass unchallenged and uncontradicted, for they will increase unto more unreasonableness; and there is nothing too foolish for men to take up with, who are determined to carry their 

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point at all hazards.  False philosophizings must be exposed, and not treated as mere whims of no practical bearing : the effect of philosophically regarding a given race of men as essentially inferior is practically to treat them as essentially inferior.  Fallacious theories must not be laughed at as simply amusing : but must be exploded as dangerous and destructive.  Unwarranted assumptions must not be put up with as harmless peculiarities; but resisted as threatening the liberties of those committed to our charge.  For we are indeed the Trustees of coming generations; and it becomes us to guard, with a holy jealousy, against the insidious approaches of mischief; and to count nothing harmless which carries with it the seeds of error. 

All this involves trouble, and pains-taking, and self-denial; according to that true saying, "Unceasing vigilance is the price of liberty;" and in a country like this, where the ultimate decision of all questions rests on the will of the people, the exercise of this attribute of sovereignty implies a weighty responsibility, and demands an amount of thought and effort commensurate with the greatness of the trust so exercised. 

It is not permitted for the people of a republican government to be inert or unconcerned about the principles and practices which prevail around them.  In other lands, where privileged ranks and ruling classes are recognized, there may be some consistency in allowing those to whom the task of ruling is a sort of inheritance, to take charge — as it were — of the common weal; and the masses of the people may 

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content themselves with simply giving their vote, if they have one, or only praying for their rulers, if they have not — trusting to the good providence of God, that He will promote to posts of influence men who will "execute justice and maintain truth;" at the same time looking, so far as human considerations come in, to the mutual watchfulness of parties, and to the effect of counter-balancing interests, for the prevention of any extreme deviation from the principles of good government.  

But in a Republic the case is otherwise.  The responsibilities of the position occupied by every voter cannot be devolved : they must be met and fulfilled; faithfully, industriously, and fearlessly; or else that power, which is always creeping from the many to the few, will be exercised by those who — for whatever reason — are found willing to give their time and attention to this especial work; and they will direct the energies, and they will apply the resources, of the people in accordance with their own ideas, or their calculations of present interest. 

In this way many years of prosperity may pass, and the affairs of a nation may seem to go on sufficiently well, especially if there be large material resources at command, and population does not tread on the heels of production; but if a crisis arises; if selfishness, or self-will gain the ascendancy, and the influential actors of the day be willing to "give to party what was meant for man;" if "a factious band agree — to call it freedom when themselves are free;" if passion takes the place of principle, and contrivance of conscience, then the consequences are felt of having the 

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places of authority and influence occupied by men who misrepresent the mind of the people; then the nation is thrown into a convulsion, and it is only after an agonizing struggle that the ultimate authority regains that practical control of affairs with which it ought never to have parted. 

What remains to be done thenceforward is to guard against the recurrence of such a catastrophe, though the right may have triumphed, and the victory be complete and glorious. 

Would not the mariner, saved from shipwreck, naturally warn those who follow him against the errors in navigation which jeopardized his vessel?  Would he not also point out those excellent qualities of the staunch ship which enabled it to outlive the storm?  And if he desired to "point a moral or adorn a tale;" would he not show his children how that noble structure was the result of thought, and skill, and patient workmanship continued through months, it may be years, of toil, and time, and perseverance? 

Yes : the exigencies of the moment bring into play the energies and the accumulations of many generations; and it depends upon the fidelity and industry with which the work of our quiet years has been performed, what shall be the issue of that strife — whether it be of the elements or of the human passions — which may itself be a turning-point in the history of a ship's crew, or of a nation's welfare, or of the human race itself. 

Such a contest has just now terminated.  The accumulated teachings and workings of some fifty years have been gradually increasing in strength and inten- 

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sity, and at last concentrated their force, on the one side and, on the other, until not only did the heavens gather blackness, and the atmosphere become surcharged with the flashing fluid that destroys, and yet purifies; but the very earth beneath our feet trembled, and many of the old foundations were shaken down during the continuance of this unprecedented storm.  But now that the fury of the tempest has spent itself, and the skies begin to look clear again, and the air is fresh and invigorating, and the earth feels firm once more, and we look abroad again — what do we behold?  We see that the area of human freedom has been marvellously enlarged, and that the Great Republic of the West has, in its onward march kept step with the great northern monarchy, so that Serf and Slave are words of the past, and Peasant and Freedman take their place. 

Well does the President indicate this as among the chief subjects for our thanksgiving!  Its influence upon the great question of human enfranchisement from every form of bondage who can describe, or even conjecture!  Compared with this, even those other blessings enumerated in the Proclamation — relief from the scourge of civil war; the securing of peace, unity and harmony; exemption from the calamities of foreign war, pestilence and famine; and, the bestowment of the fruits of an abundant harvest — even these, great as they are, and deeply grateful as we should be for their enjoyment, hardly equal, in the comparison, that which is at once an enfranchisement both to master and to servant, and also a deliverance from evils the effects of which increased with each succeeding generation. 

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One other feature in the Thanksgiving Proclamation attracts our attention; and that is the prominent recognition of the Divine dogma concerning government : "Righteousness exalteth a nation; but Sin is a reproach to any people."  

Oh, that this were not only recognized, but remembered — so remembered as to be steadily acted upon!  Not the number, in millions, of square miles; not the hundreds of thousands of population; not the mineral wealth, unexhausted and even unexplored; not the abundant productions of the earth, nor the varied results of mechanic skill; not the prodigious tonnage of shipping, nor the force of batteries, nor the size of armies; not even the general intelligence and intellectual culture of the people — none of these constitute, though they all enhance, the exaltation of a people : that is the office of righteousness alone — of truth, and justice, of equal law, and of national honor in its truest and noblest sense.  

And these are the principles and sentiments we are called upon to teach our children, and our children's children — acknowledging, as truth may require, the national sins, in respect to these things, against God's infinite goodness; acknowledging also that it is not in man that walketh to direct his steps; and, therefore, "imploring the divine guidance in the ways of national virtue and holiness."  These are weighty words, coming as they do, from the Chief Magistrate of the nation at such a time as this.  We trust, that, in proportion to the greater reality and earnestness which characterize these days as compared with the times preceding, will be the 

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sincerity of that regard which men will pay to this immutable law of the Divine Government. "Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to any people." 

Then the National Banner of these United States will be recognized, the world over, as the Symbol of Liberty conjoined with Law, of Progress guided by Discretion, and of Intelligence ennobled by Religion.  It will be in the van-guard of a Christian civilization which will carry the results of modern science to the far-off nations whose advancement is checked by absolutism in government, restriction in commerce, and corruption in social life. It will be a token of encouragement to nations still struggling for the possession and enjoyment of free institutions; while it will be a warning to all rulers who care more for the pre-eminence of the few, than for the welfare of the many.  As it floats over scores of Consulates in foreign lands, it will be the symbol of good neighborship among nations, and at the same time a reminder of the mischief of inter meddling with the interests of others.  As it flies from the mast-heads of hundreds of ships — both of war and commerce — whose keels plough every sea, it will be an "ensign to the nations from far," the meaning of which will be "fair treaties and free commerce among all countries."  And now that in a sense which never before was fully realized; now that, in truth, that flag does -- "Wave o'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave," now let every heart resolve to support and sustain, defend and promulgate all those high principles of which it is the beautiful and significant symbol, 

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making it the standard of a true crusade against everything mean and ignoble, selfish and tyrannous; until righteousness shall be established in the earth, even until God shall "shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come."  

It is a favorite device with some writers on government to trace an analogy between the life of a nation and that of an individual; and to insist that as there is in the one case youth and manhood, decadence and death, so there must needs be in the other a rise and progress, a decline and fall.  The idea is poetical, and does not lack some semblance of confirmation from the history of the past — Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, Venetia — all have gone through this process, as some would think completely; yet when we look more closely, it is only the two first — Assyria and Babylon — that have indeed become nationally extinct.  Persia is yet a nation; Egypt still gives signs of life : and though the poet sang: 

" 'Tis Greece 
"But living Greece no more," 

that home of liberty and literature has still a flame burning on its national altar.  May it never be extinguished!  Even Rome — old, glorious Rome — survives; and were it once delivered from sacerdotal usurpation, who doubts but that she would yet lift her head as the natural and rightful mistress of all Italy? — a nation still, though not a popedom!  And beautiful Venetia is not dead; rather, as another captive Briseis, the Austrian Agamemnon and the 

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Italian Achilles are contending for her possession.  Nay; we might even reconsider our first concession, and say that if Bagdad [sic] be considered as supplementing Babylon, then the Caliph Omar revived the realm of Queen Semiramis, and we have yet a living representative among the nations, of the empire which Nimrod founded, and the city which Asshur went forth to build. 

So fanciful and unfounded is that supposed analogy on which is based the expectation that nations must need decay and die.  

Rather let the progress of a nation — and of this nation in particular — be compared to "the path of the just, which shineth more and more unto the perfect day."  Why not — when it is possessed of that knowledge of sacred truth and saving righteousness which are the very salt of preservation, effectually counteracting the tendencies to corruption which, if unchecked; might end in extinction?  Well may we look for "this perpetuity, as a result of knowing and obeying all the Divine Law, when we see that the unremitting obedience to only one of the Ten Commandments — "Honor thy father and thy mother" — has brought down the promised blessing, and caused the people of the far-off land of Sinim to "dwell long in the land" which the Lord God in his providence gave them; so that they are now, not only the most ancient nation on the face of the earth, dating back consecutively to the times just subsequent to the flood, but are also the most numerous of all people; reckoning their four hundred millions of living souls! 

Let this one example incite emulation, as well as 

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afford encouragement. Let this nation also become eminent for the degree in which father and mother are honored, let the whole code of righteousness be observed which truly exalteth a nation, and there will be no decay no leading into captivity, no wasting and destruction in our fields; no complaining in our streets; but in place thereof joy and gladness, prosperity and perpetuity.  

On the contrary : if the admonition of God's prophet and lawgiver be disregarded — if we take not heed to ourselves, and keep not our soul diligently; but forget the things which our eyes have seen, so that they depart from our hearts; if we teach them not to our children and our children's children — then there may come upon us — no; it will not be on us, but upon them — on the children of whose happiness we are the Guardians, and on the generations yet unborn for whose welfare we are the Trustees — on them will come the miseries which our fidelity might have averted. 

The solemnity of so weighty a charge may well temper the joyousness of this happy day; though it ought not to overcloud the brightness of our rejoicing.  It is hard to draw comparisons between this, and those former occasions in the nation's history, when peace and good-will have been restored after warfare and animosity; but the proportions of this latest strife, the aggravated nature of the contest, the unnaturalness of the circumstances, the obstinacy of the resistance, and the completeness of the defeat, all mark this as the most signal of all victories ever granted to this people.  And, whereas, in other con- 

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flicts, especially in ancient times, the greatness of the triumph was enhanced by the numbers who had lost their freedom and, passed into captivity; this — altogether on the contrary — is signalized by the unprecedented numbers who are delivered from the yoke of bondage and made free, so that they can call their bodies as well as their souls their own.  

Now could that bell which hangs over Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, be rung so that its tones would be heard over the whole country, it might perform what is directed by the legend cast into its very substance; that almost prophetic passage from the book of Leviticus:  "Proclaim Liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof."  Oh, that it might be to every one individually, that liberty wherewith Christ maketh free all that come unto the Father through him! 

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A portion of the last paragraph of Daniel Webster's letter written in 1850, to certain citizens of Staunton, Virginia, is too illustrative not to be here added. 

''Let me ask you to teach your young men, into whose hands the power of the country must soon fall, to go back to the close of the Revolutionary war; to contemplate the feebleness and incompetency of the confederation of States then existing; and to trace the steps by which the intelligence and patriotism of the great men of that day led the country to the adoption of the existing Constitution.  Teach them to study the proceedings, votes and reports of committees in the old Congress. Especially draw their attention to the leading part taken by the Assembly of Virginia from 1783 onward.  Direct their minds to the Convention at Annapolis in 1786; and by the contemplation and study of these events and these efforts, let them see what a mighty thing it was to establish the government under which we have now lived so prosperously and so gloriously for sixty years." 

Works of Daniel Webster, Vol VI, p. 581.

Source:  Syle, Edward W., The Perpetuity of National Life -- A SERMON DELIVERED ON THANKSGIVING DAY, THURSDAY, DEC. 7, 1865, IN CHRIST CHURCH, PELHAM, N. Y., BY THE REV. E. W. SYLE, A. M., RECTOR (NY, NY:  Jas. W. Trubshaw, Book & Job Printer, 1865).  

*          *          *          *          *

During his 1865 Thanksgiving sermon, Reverend Syle makes repeated reference to the President Andrew Johnson's Thanksgiving Proclamation.  Below is the text of that proclamation.

"Proclamation 147 -- Thanksgiving Day, 1865
October 28, 1865

By the President of the United States of America
A Proclamation

Whereas it has pleased Almighty God during the year which is now coming to an end to relieve our beloved country from the fearful scourge of civil war and to permit us to secure the blessings of peace, unity, and harmony, with a great enlargement of civil liberty; and 

Whereas our Heavenly Father has also during the year graciously averted from us the calamities of foreign war, pestilence, and famine, while our granaries are full of the fruits of an abundant season; and 

Whereas righteousness exalteth a nation, while sin is a reproach to any people: 

Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, do hereby recommend to the people thereof that they do set apart and observe the first Thursday of December next as a day of national thanksgiving to the Creator of the Universe for these great deliverances and blessings. 

And I do further recommend that on that occasion the whole people make confession of our national sins against His infinite goodness, and with one heart and one mind implore the divine guidance in the ways of national virtue and holiness. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this 28th day of October, A.D. 1865, and of the Independence of the United States of America the ninetieth. 


By the President: 
Secretary of State."

Source:  Johnson, Andrew, "Proclamation 147—Thanksgiving Day, 1865," October 28, 1865. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project (visited Nov. 20, 2016).

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