Research Regarding Anhooke, One of the Native Americans Who Signed the Treaty by Which Thomas Pell Acquired Lands That Became the Manor of Pelham
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Eight Native Americans signed the document known as Thomas Pell's "Treaty" on June 27, 1654. Five of those Native Americans signed that portion of the document by which Thomas Pell acquired the lands that became known as the Manor of Pelham using their "marks". Listed as "Saggamores" (sachems), the five were: Shawanórõckquot, Poquõrúm, Anhõõke, Wawhamkus, and Mehúmõw. (For an image of the treaty and its transcription, click here). Three additional Native Americans signed that portion of the treaty labeled the "Articles of Agreement" whereby the parties agreed mutually to preserve "peace & love", to reveal to each other any plots intended to harm the other and to send men out one day each Spring to re-mark the boundaries of the lands acquired by Pell. Those three Native Americans were designated "Indyan Wittnesses" and were: Cockho, Kamaque and Cockinsecawa.
Little is known about these eight Native Americans. Many legends have arisen regarding one of them: Anhõõke. After years of inquiry and research, I have come to the firm conclusion that many of these legends are unfounded.
Anhõõke has been described as the Siwanoy who murdered Anne Hutchinson in 1643. At the time he supposedly was known as Wampage and allegedly took the name "Anhõõke" to pay homage to his notorious deed of killing Anne Hutchinson. It appears to me that Wampage was an Algonquian Patriot and that Anhõõke was an entirely different Native American.
In his history of Westchester County first published in 1848 and reissued in a second edition (1881) and a third edition (1905), Robert Bolton, Jr. seems to be the first author to claim in print that Anhõõke and Wampage were one and the same. (I am not convinced that the two were one and the same. I recognize, however, that several academics have concluded that the two were the same.) Bolton wrote:
"The residence of Anne Hutchinson appears to have been situated on Pelham neck [sic], formerly called Ann's hoeck, literally, Ann's point or neck, hoeck being a Dutch name for a neck or point, for, up to a very late period, her farm was distinguished as the Manor of Anne hooks neck. A small stream that separates this town from Eastchester on the west still retains her surname Hutchinson's river. One of the principal Indian proprietors of this territory also assumed her christian surname, as we find it recorded in the early deeds, Ann-hoock alias Wampage. This individual may have taken an active part in the destruction of Mrs. Hutchinson, for nothing was more common among the Indians than for a warrior to assume the name of his victim."
Source: Bolton, Jr., Robert, A History of the County of Westchester From its First Settlement to the Present Time, Vol. 1, p. 515 (NY, NY: Alexander S. Gould 1848).
Other historians have questioned portions of the legend. See, e.g., Ultan, Lloyd, The Bronx in the Frontier Era, p. 196 (Bronx, NY: Bronx Historical Society 1994) ("Wampage was also known as Ann-Hooke. Several authors assume that he was the man who killed Anne Hutchinson and took her name. Without documentary evidence, this must remain speculation.").
The tradition that Anhõõke and Wampage were the same person has become ingrained, although there seems to be conflicting evidence regarding whether they were, in fact, the same person. Today's Historic Pelham Blog posting begins the process of assembling research on the Native American known as Anhõõke. Manny have researched this before. Now I hope to document such research so others will not "reinvent the wheel", so to speak.
References Purporting to Provide General Information About Anhõõke
Robert Bolton, Jr.'s second edition of the history of Westchester County was published in 1881, shortly after the author's death. In it, Bolton described Anhõõke as follows:
"One of the principal Indian proprietors of this territory, who sold to Thomas Pell in 1654, just eleven years after the above mentioned massacre, assumed Mrs. Hutchinson's Christian name ; for he constantly styled himself in the early deeds 'Ann-hoock,' alias Wampage. This [image of "An hoock AH his mark"] individual may have taken an active part in the destruction of Anne Hutchinson, for nothing was more common among the Indians than for a warrior or brave to assume the name of his victim -- material traces of his existence still linger around the scene of this bloody tragedy, for his grave or mound is still pointed out, and there is also a rock upon the south side of the neck bearing the same name, which is said to have been a favorite fishing place of the above mentioned sachem. Towards the extreme point of the neck, sometimes called Rodman's Point (after Samuel Rodman who married Mary, grand-daughter of Thomas Pell, third proprietor of the manor) quite near the waters' edge is located an ancient burying ground, said to have been used by the Indians ; but a thorough examination, conducted in the presence of Thomas Pell, fifth in descent from John Lord Pell, proved it to be a place of sepulture for the white race only -- how far back it is impossible to say. The first mound opened contained the skull and larger bones of a female skeleton in a horizontal position."
Source: Bolton, Jr., Robert, The History of the Several Towns, Manors and Patents of the County of Westchester, From Its First Settlement to the Present Time Carefully Revised by Its Author, Vol. II, p. 33 (C.W. Bolton, ed., Chas. F. Roper pub. 1881) (hereinafter "Bolton 1881").
Early References to "Anne Hook's" Neck (or Other Such References)
There are a number of late 17th century references to the area known today as Rodman's Neck suggesting that the area was associated with, visited by, or once owned by Anhõõke. [More here]
According to Bolton in his 1881 edition, there was a very early reference to "Ann Hook's Neck" recorded in connection with an order to inventory Thomas Pell's estate following his death in late September 1669. Bolton wrote:
"This 3d of ------ [Must be October], in his Majestie's Colony of Connecticut, September, 1669, a [Footnote a states "a This will may be found in the Probate Rec. of Fairfield Co., 1665 to '75, vol. ii, p. 43-44. Also Surrogates office N. Y. Wills and Adm., 1665 to 1683, vol. i9., p. 83."]
Upon the 13th of October, A. D. 1669, the Court of Assize issued the [Page 45 / Page 46] following order, authorizing and appointing Mr. John Richbell, Mr. William Leyden, and mr. Samuel Drake, to take an inventory of the estate of Thomas Pell, deceased:
'Whereas Mr. Thomas Pell, of Ann Hook's Neck, is lately deceased, and having left a considerable estate in this government, of which no inventory is as yet returned.' a [Footnote a states "a Assize Rec. Albany, vol. ii. 78."]".
Source: Bolton 1881, Vol. II, pp. 45-46.
Bolton also wrote in his 1881 edition about events on "Anne Hook's Neck" in 1675. He wrote:
"In 1675 the Indians must have been still residing on the neck in considerable numbers for at a General Court of assize held the same year in New York, it was resolved, 'that the Indyans at Mr. Pell's or Anne Hook's Neck, be ordered to remove to their usual winter quarters, within Hell Gate, upon this island ; and further, that all canoes belonging to Christians or Indyans on the north side of Long Island to the east of Hell Gate shall be (within three days from the publication of this order) brought to the next towns and delivered to the constables to be secured near the Hook house ; any canoes found upon the sound after that time to be destroyed.' 'This order is said to have ben made to prevent the Indians of Long Island joining King Philip against New England.' b [Footnote b cites "Dunlap's Hist. of N. Y., vol. ii., appendix cxxiii."]
Near the entrance of Pellam [sic] neck, is situated the favorite burying ground of the Siwanoy's tribe, to which the Indians were in the habit of bringing their dead over from Greenwich for interment. Numerous mounds are still visible near the water's edge, on the Rapelyea estate. Two of the largest mounds are pinted out as the sepulchres of the Siwanoy's sachems, Ann-hook and Nimham ; both of whom are said to have lived to advanced ages. c [Footnote c cites "Nimham, sachem of Miereckacky occurs in 1669."]
The former was opened some years since, and found to contain a large sized skeleton, by the side of which lay the stone axe and flint spear head of the tenant of the grave. We have carefully examined several mounds near the waters edge; one of these held the remains of an Indian boy about twelve years old, in a sitting position, together with a beautiful specimen of native pottery formed by the hand alone, rudely ornamented with zigzag lines, in which we discovered an arrow head of [Page 36 / Pag3 37] quartz and the bones of a small animal. This practice of burying their favorite utensils and weapons with the deceased, is known to be an ancient Indian custom. By way of accounting for the numerous mounds which occur so close to the waters edge, on the north-east side of the neck, it is said that the small-pox was introduced among the Indians through the medium of blankets, and that when they applied for a remedy they were told to bathe in the salt water which proved almost instant death to hundreds. Near the residence of the late L. R. Marshall, the remains of an Indian were found in a very perfect state of preservation with a gun by his side. On the extreme point of this beautiful neck which commands the magnificent scenery of Hutchinson's Bay, lies another Indian cemetery."
Source: Bolton 1881, Vol. II, pp. 36-37.
Anhõõke Allegedly Confirmed the Ownership Rights of Inhabitants of the Town of East Chester in 1666
In the second edition of his History of Westchester County published in 1881, Bolton claimed that in 1666 "Anhooke" and other Native Americans confirmed the ownership rights of the inhabitants of the Town of East Chester. Bolton wrote:
"Upon the 14th of November, 1654 [sic], Thomas Pell obtained a second grant from the aboriginal proprietors, which also embraced the present township. Twelve years later we find the inhabitants of East Chester confirmed in all their rights by the Mohegan Sachems, Gramatan, Woariatapus, Annhooke, (alias Wampage,) and Porrige."
Source: Bolton, Jr., Robert, The History of the Several Towns, Manors and Patents of the County of Westchester, From Its First Settlement to the Present Time Carefully Revised by Its Author, Vol. I, p. 201 (C.W. Bolton, ed., Chas. F. Roper pub. 1881).
Bolton also wrote later in the same book as follows: "In 1666, the inhabitants of Eastchester obtained a further grant from the native Indians, Ann-hooke and others. This sale was confirmed by royal patent the same year". Id., p. 205.
See also Jenkins, Stephen, The Story of the Bronx from the Purchase Made by the Dutch from the Indians in 1639 to the Present Day, p. (NY, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons 1912) ("The settlement became known as the 'Ten Farms,' and later, as Eastchester, because it lay to the eastward of Westchester. In 1666, the settlers bought more land from the Indians, who confirmed, at the same time, the previous sale of 1654 to Pell. The Mohegan sachems who signed the deed were Gramatan, Woariatapus, Annhooke (alias Wampage), and Porrige. The sachem Wampage, or Annhooke, was probably the slayer of Mrs. Hutchinson, as it was not unusual among the aborigines to assume the name of the slain, due probably, to a superstitious belief that by so doing the dead would be propitiated or that the good qualities of the slain, especially courage, would enter into the slayer.").
Wampage, Who Some Have Said Was the Alias of Anhõõke, Conveyed Land East of Bronx River in 1684
Robert Bolton, Jr. included an unsupported reference in his second edition of the History of Westchester County published in 1881 suggesting that Wampage (whom many claim was also known as Anhõõke) conveyed lands lying to the east of the Bronx River in 1684. The reference reads:
"Upon the 14th of November, 1654 [sic], Thomas Pell of Fairfield, Connecticut, obtained a second grant from the aboriginal proprietors, which also embraced the present town. Thirty years later we find the sachems Maminepoe and Wampage conveying to the inhabitants of Westchester all that tract of land lying on the east side of Bronckses river.' [sic]"
Source: Bolton 1881, Vol. II, p. 263.
Wampage, Who Some Have Said Was the Alias of Anhõõke, Conveyed a Tract on May 27, 1692
Robert Bolton, Jr. included an unsupported reference in his second edition of the History of Westchester County published in 1881 purporting to quote what he described as an "INDIAN DEED OF WESTCHESTER". The reference reads:
"Upon the 27th of May, 1692, we find the Indian proprietors, Maminepoe and Wampage, conveying the following tract of land, to the trustees of [the Town of] Westchester.
INDIAN DEED OF WESTCHESTER.
'To all Christian people to whom this deed of sale shall come, greeting: Know ye, that wee, Maminepoe and Wampage alias Ann-hook, Indian proprietors of a certain tract of land lying within the limits and bounds of the patent of the county town of Westchester, in the province of New York, for a valuable consideration, and other considerations us thereunto moving, and having taken the advice and approbation of several native Indians here underwritten, to us in hand paid by John Palmer, William Barnes, William Richardson, Joseph Palmer, Samuel Palmer, Robert Huestis, John Ferris, John Hunt, Joseph Hunt, Josiah Hunt, Thomas Baxter, and Edward Collier, trustees of the freehold and commonality of the town of Westchester aforesaid, the receipt whereof we do hereby acknowledge and therewith to be lawfully satisfied, contented, and paid, and thereof do acquit, exonerate, and release, and discharge the said trustees, their heirs, successors, and assignees forever, have given, granted, bargained, sold, enfeoffed, [Page 290 / Page 291] released, and confirmed, and by these presents do fully, clearly, absolutely, give, grant, bargain, sell, enfeof, release, and confirm unto the said trustees, their heirs, successors and assignees forever, all that tract of land lying on the east side of BRUNXS'S river, beginning at the pine trees and so compassing all the land which we the said Maminepoe and Wampage layes claim to, until they come to the head of Rattle Snake brook, and from thence north-east to Mr. Pell's land, so north by saidPell's marked trees by Brunx's river, together with the woods, underwoods, timber, trees, waters, rivers, runs, brooks, and all and singular the emolluments, hereditaments, rights, privileges, and appurtenances, thereunto belonging or appertaining, (only reserving to ourselves the privelege of making use of white wood trees for our particular use,) to have and to hold the before recited premises, with all and every of its appurtenances, unto the said trustees, their heirs, successors, and asssignees [sic] to the only proper use and benefit and behoof of them the said trustees, their heirs, successors and assignees forever; and it shall and may be lawful for the said trustees, their heirs, successors, and assignees, from henceforth and forever, to have and to hold, use, occupy, and enjoy the siad tract of land, free from all incumbrances whatsoever, unto the said trustees, their successors and assignees for ever, without any manner of claime, challenge, or demand of us, our heirs, executors or administrators, or any other native Indians or Christian people, by, from, or under us, or any person or persons whatsoever; and we the said Maminepoe and Wampage, alias Ann-hook, shall and will forever warrant and defend the said tract of land unto the said freeholders of the corporation of Westchester, their heirs and assignees forever. In witness whereof we the said Maminepoe and Wampage, alias Ann-hook, shall and will forever warrant and defend the said tract of land unto the said freeholders of the corporation of Westchester, their heirs and assignees forever. In witness whereof we the said Maminepoe and Wampage, alias Ann-hook, have put to our hands and seales this 27th of May, the fourth year of their of their majesties reign, and A. D. 1692.
The mark of [Sideways "V", base to the Left] MAMINEPOE,
The mark of [Sideways "V", base to the Right] WAMPAGE, alias ANN-HOOK.
The mark of [Sideways "X"] CROHAMANTHENE,
The mark of [Sideways "P", base to the Left] MAMERTEKOH.
Signed, sealed, and deliver [sic] in presence of us,
The mark of [Sideways "T" base to the Left] JOHN GARRETSON,
Native Indians witnesses to the above deed.
The mark of [Sideways "P" base to the Left] WEENETONAH,
The mark of <>
The following entry in the town books refers to this sale: --
'At a meeting of the inhabitants held the 27th 9f May, 1692, this day, the [Page 291 / Page 292] land on the east side of Broncks's river, till we come to Mr. Pell's line, was purchased of Mamineoe and Ann-hook for: --
1 barrel of cider,
6 bitts of money.
DISBURSEMENTS UPON THE INDIAN PURCHASE.
WILLIAM BARNES, 1 kettle, . . . . . . £2 . . 2 . . 0
To expenses to ye Indians, . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 6 . . 0
JOHN HUNT, 1 coate,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . 12. . 0
For money, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . . 1. . 6
To Indian supper and other expences, .0 . . 3. . 0
WILLIAM RICHARDSON, 2 shirts,. . . 0 . .12. .0
JOHN FERRIS, sen, 1 coate, . . . . . . . . . 0 . .12. .0
To one day with the Indians, . . . . . . . . . 0. . . 3. .0
JOSEPH HUNT, 2 adzes, and 3s. 8d. in money. . .0 . 15. .0
SAMUEL PALMER, 1 gun. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . 0. . 0
THOMAS BAXTER, 1 gun. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . .2. . 0
JOSEPH HUNT, 1 barrel of cider, . . . . . 0. . 3. . 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .£8 . . 4. . 6
ROBERT HUESTIS and THOMAS BAXTER, 1 gun. a [Footnote a reads "a Alb. Rec. gen entries. See also Town Rec. 27th of March, 174, Joseph Hunt was directed to go to the clerk of the county and see the Indian deed recorded."]"
Source: Bolton 1881, Vol. II, pp. 290-92.
Anhõõke Allegedly Confirmed the Ownership Rights of Inhabitants of the Town of East Chester Again in 1700
In the same volume, Bolton contends that "Ann Hooke" was among the Native Americans who confirmed the ownership rights of inhabitants of the Town of East Chester again in 1700. Bolton wrote:
"Upon the 23d day of December, A. D. 1700, we find the Indians confirming the inhabitants of Eastchester in their possession.
Be it known unto all to whom these presents may come, or concern; whereas the inhabitants of Eastchester did formerly purchase a certain tract of land of the natives, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred sixty and six, and part of the same being not as yet satisfied, the said tract of land being butted and bounded as is hereafter expressed, viz. : east and south-east, by a certain river commonly called Hutchinson's river, which runs in at the head of the meadows, on the west bounds of Mr. Pell's patent, and southerly to Hutchinson's brook, and from the head thereof, north-west to Brunckses his river, and so all the land betwixt Hutchinson's and Brunckses his river, and so from the head of Hutchinson's river, northwest west to Brunckses river, and so all the land betwixt Hutchinson's and Brunckses rivers, according as aforementioned, NOW KNOW YE, that we, Woariatapus Annhook and Porrige, do owne, that we have received full satisfaction of Richard Shute, John Drake, and Henry Fowler, in the behalf of the rest of the inhabitants of Eastchester aforesaid, for the said tract of land, and we the abovesaid Woariatapus, Annhook and Porrige, do by these presents confirm unto the said Richard Shute, John Drake and Henry Fowler, in the behalf of the rest of the inhabitants of Eastchester aforesaid, their heirs and assigns forever, and we the above said Woariatapus, Annhook and Porrige, will warrant and defend the same from all incumbrances whatsoever, of any person or persons laying claime, right, title or demand, unto any part or parcel of the abovesaid tract of land, above mentioned, in witness whereof, we the said Woariatapus, Annhook and Porrige have hereunto put to our hands and seals, this third day of Dec., in the 12th year of his majestie's reign, A. D. 1700.
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us, Robert Bloomer, George Copping, David Whitlock.
The mark of [Sideways "X"] Woariatabus
The mark of AH Ann Hooke,
Source: Bolton, supra, id., p. 210.
Anhõõke Allegedly Sold Land to George Booth and Others in 1705
In the same volume, Bolton wrote as follows:
"On the 6th of April, 1705, Patthunck, Sagamore, Hopesco alias Porrige, Anne Hook, and Elias, Indian proprietors, sold to George Booth, joiner of the city of New York and his associates,
'All that our right of land which is not yet lawfully purchased, lying and being from the land which is now in dispute betwixt Westchester and Eastchester, and so running along by Bronck's river, to Hutchinson's river, and bounded on the north by Eastchester lyne, to have and to hold, &c.'"
Source: Id., p., 211.
Carefully scrutiny of other early records likely will reveal more about Anhõõke. These research notes are only the beginning.
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